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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 - The Use and Abuse of Psychoactive Drugs.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Lecture 12 – Chapter 14: The Use and Abuse of Psychoactive Drugs Addictive Behaviour  Habits that have gotten out of control, with a resulting negative impact on a person’s health  Five characteristics typically associated with addictive behaviours: 1. Reinforcement  Feels goo when you do the drug 2. Compulsion of craving  Feel compelled to do the drug 3. Loss of control  Can’t block impulse to indulge 4. Escalation  More and more of the substance or activity is required to produce desired effects 5. Negative consequences  Interfere with one’s day to day life, negative consequences such as legal consequences The Development of Addiction  Many behaviours are addictive, but most people who engage in them do not develop problems  Expanding view to other behaviours besides alcohol and drugs to things such as sex, food and shopping  If a person becomes dependent and tolerance develops, the behaviour is likely to become a central focus in the person’s life o Tolerance  how the individual physically becomes more tolerant and so they need more and more of the substance  No single cause of addiction o The individual environment and substance/behaviour combine o Individuals with more trouble dealing with stress may be more susceptible to addiction o Some people may also have a genetic predisposition to addiction Substance Use, Abuse and Dependence  Psychoactive  a blanket term to include drugs and other substances  Drugs  chemicals other than food that are intended to affect the structure or function of the body  Drugs include: o Prescription medicines  Antibiotics and antidepressants o Over-the-counter (OTC) substances  Alcohol, tobacco and caffeine substances o Illegal substances  LSD and heroin  Addication  Any type of behaviour that interferes with someone’s functioning, and influences them socially, academically or professionally  American Psychiatric Assocation (APA) differentiates between substance abuse and substance dependence Substance Abuse  Involves ONE of the following o Recurrent use resulting in a failure to fulfill major responsibilities at work, school or home  Doesn’t have to be continuous can be intermittent, but still considered recurrent o Recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous  E.g. before driving o Recurrent substance-related legal problems o Continued substance use despite persistent social or interpersonal problems cause by or exacerbated by the effects of the substance o Physical dependence may or may not be present  Tolerance and withdrawal are symptoms or physical dependence  Tolerance  need more and more of the substance to get a high  Withdrawal  when there is a reduced amount of substance in a scenario and they experience symptoms Substance Dependence  In most cases, the individual knows that this substance is bad for them and they shouldn’t be doing it  Overlap between addiction and mental health means they are both brain diseases  Involves THREE or more of the following during a
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