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Lecture 14

Lecture 14 - Tobacco.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 16 – Tobacco Lecture 14 Adderall  A brand of amphetamine-dextropamphetamine, a stimulant generally prescribed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)  2005 study  3 most accessible drug on U.S. campuses (after alcohol and marijuana)  2009 study of >3,400 undergraduates  5.4% had used ADHD medication recreationally in last 6 months, estimated to be more  works by increasing dopamine and norepinephrine, neurotransmitters associated with focus and attention Risks  Common drawback = loss of creativity, focus on other tasks o Found that people didn’t actually do better, either did the same or worse  2005 study  recreational users have GPA of 3.0 or lower  Ethical considerations  mental steroids?  Legal risks associated sharing and buying prescription drugs (Safe Streets & Communities Act passed in 212 – Schedule 1, highly controlled) o Most potential for abuse and the most serious legal consequences for buying or selling this drug  People can overdose with as little as 2 mg  Health risks  taking without prescription/medical supervision is very dangerous o Increase risk of cardiovascular problems o Side effects  shakiness, decrease appetite o High potential for drug dependency o Amount to overdose  varies considerably Health Hazards of Cigarette Smoking  Negative effects of nearly every organ of body and decrease overall health  Related to more than 2 dozen diseases and conditions  Contain >4000 chemicals, at least 40-50 that are carcinogens or co-carcinogens and/or irritate the tissues of the respiratory system o Carcinogens = cancer causing substances o Co-carcinogens = work with other chemicals to cause cancer  Smoke contains carbon monoxide in concentrations 400x greater than safety threshold in workplace Long-Term Effects of Smoking  Decrease life expectancy o On average, smokers life 10-15 yeas less than nonsmokers o Due to health effects of smoking Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)  Commonly called secondhand smoke  Also thirdhand smoke o Smoke and smoke residue trapped in clothing, cars, curtains etc. o There are health effects relate to this  Consists of: o Mainstream smoke  exhaled by smokers o Sidestream smoke  from burning of end of the cigarette, cigar, or pipe  Sidestream smoke contains higher concentration of toxic and carcinogenic compounds (at least 2x the nicotine and tar) o It has not been filtered  Nearly 85% of the smoke in a room where someone is smoking is sidestream smoke Effects of ETS  Labeled a “Class A” cancer-causing substance o Most dangerous of cancer agents o No known safe exposure level o U.S. Environmental Protection Agency  Regular exposure to ETS increases chances of contracting lung disease by 25% and heart disease by 10%  At least 1,000 non-smokers die from exposure to ETS in Canada each year o >300 from lung cancer o at least 700 from coronary heart disease  Coughs, headaches, nasal discomfort, eye irritation, breathlessness, sinus problems Children and ETS  Children have increased metabolism and can absorb more smoke than adults o Have little bodies and breathe faster o Because they breathe faster than adults and inhale more air
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