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Lecture 4

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Lecture 4 Weight Management Maintaining a Healthy Weight: A Public Health Challenge - Health Canada reports that approximately 61% of Canadian adults are overweight, including 24% who are obese - By 2021, estimated 70% of males and ~50% of females will be overweight or obese Basic Concepts of Weight Management - Body composition o Subcutaneous fat o Visceral fat o Ectopic fat - Energy balance o When energy in equals energy out, maintain current weight - Evaluating Body Weight and Body composition o Height-weight charts o Body Mass Index o BMI >30 = obese o Not a great predictor of health  Doesn’t count muscle  Is relative  Not good for kids and elders o Body composition analysis  Hydrostatic weighing and Bod Pod  Bod Pod: helps determine body fat  Skinfold measurements  Electrical impedance analysis  Scanning procedures  Ex. DEXA - Excess body fat and wellness o Several health risks  Reduced life expectancy  Unhealthy cholesterol  Cardiovascular disease  Diabetes  Cancer  Skin problems o Distribution of body fat important indicator of health  Apple vs pear shape  Apple: all fat distributed in organs and around heart  Pear: fat distributed in hips o Not surrounding major organs  Men = apple, women = pear - o Waist circumference is sometimes used as marker for current and potential health challenges - Negative body image: characterized by dissatisfaction with body in general or some part of body in particular - Very low levels of body fat can be threat too o Reproductive, circulatory, and immune system disorder o In order for female to start menstruating need certain amount of fat Factors contributing to excess body fat - Genetic factor o Estimates of genetic contribution to obesity vary widely, from 25%- 40% of an individual’s body fat  So ~30%genetic and ~70% our control o Scientists have so far identified more than 600 genes associated with obesity o Genes influence body size and shape, body fat distribution, and metabolic rate o If both parents obese, children have 80% risk of being obese o If one parent obese, 40% risk o Hereditary influence have to be considered along with environmental factors  Important that intervention programs need to include whole family - Physiological factors o Metabolism: key factor in regulation of body fat and body weight  Influenced by heredity, behavior, weight loss or gain, and exercise  How fast body can break down food o Hormones: play role in accumulation of body fat particularly in women during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause o Fat cells: similar to little compartments that inflate to hold body fat  Determine amount of fat one has in body  Can decrease the size of fat cells  When existing ones are filled, body makes more, and increase ability to store fat - Lifestyle factors o Eating calorie-dense foods: contain high-fat and high-sugar  Rely on fast food or packaged convenience food  Restaurant portion sizes o Physical activity declining in Canadians  School cut back on physical education and recess  Most adults inactive throughout the day - Psychosocial factors o Use food as means of coping with stress and negative emotions  Eating can provide powerful distraction from difficult feelings o Obesity strongly associated with socioeconomic status  More women than men are obese at lower income levels  Men more obese at higher income levels o Food integral part of familial or cultural gatherings and celebrations  Can be difficult to change established eating patterns Diet and Eating Habits - Total calories o To maintain current weight, total number of calories you eat has to equal number you burn o To lose weight, need to decrease calorie intake or increase the number of calories you burn o Best approach is combining increase in physical activity with moderate calorie restriction o Make sure to look at serving size when looking at how many calories - Portion size o Overconsumption of total calories closely tied to portion size o Many Canadians unaware that portions have increased  Most significantly underestimate amount of food we eat o Eat more food they perceive of being healthy but in process consume far more calories than needed  Ex. protein source = palm of hand - Energy (calorie) density o Energy density: number of calories per gram o Avoid large helpings of energy-dense foods like butter, mayo, cheese, chocolate, fatty meats, and processed foods
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