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Lecture 5

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Lecture 5 Nutrition 6 Years of Eating! - In your lifetime you’ll spend about six years eating o 70,000 meals o 54 metric tons of food - What you eat can have profound effects on health and well being - Nutritional habits help determine risk of major chronic diseases o What you eat can change DNA code which affect you down the road Nutritional Requirements: components of Healthy Diet - 50 Essential nutrients o Macronutrients: protein, fat, and carbs o Micronutrients: vitamins, minerals - Digestion allows us to obtain these nutrients from our foods o Digestion depend on type of food  Start in mouth and travel to stomach  Largest amount of breaking down happen in intestines Calories - Energy in food expressed as kilocalories (1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories) o 1 kilocalorie = amount of heat it takes to raise temperature of 1L of water one degree - Person needs ~2000 calories/ day to meet his or her energy needs - Of 6 classes of essential nutrients, 3 supply energy Proteins: Basis of Body Structure - Proteins form important parts of body’s main structural components: Muscles and bones o Help increase energy o Help stability glucose levels  When pair protein with carb, will not get hungry easily - Amino acids are building blocks of proteins - Complete proteins supply all essential amino acids in adequate amounts while incomplete proteins do not - Adequate daily intake of protein for adults is 0.8 g/kg of body weight Fats: Essential in Small Amounts - Also known as lipids, fats are most concentrated source of energy - Fats stored in body = usable energy o Help insulate body o Support, cushion your organs o Fat needed in bran to keep working - Difference in fatty acid structure within triglyceride result in different types of fats - Saturated fatty acids o Solid at room temperature o Generally found naturally in animal products o Can be good for you  Ex. coconut oil  Comes in 2 forms (ones that taste like coconut and ones that don’t)  Good for moisturizer/ conditioner  In countries that only use this oil, have no incidences of hearth disease o Decrease risk of Altziemers - Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids o Liquid at room temperature and usually come from plant sources - Hydrogenation o Mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids o Trans fatty acids - Margarine = claimed non-hydrogenated - Different types of fat have very different effects on health - Saturated and trans fatty acids increase low-density lipoprotein - Omega-3 fatty acids have heart-healthy effects o Highly recommend supplement pills for this - Most Canadians consume sufficient amounts of essential fats o Limit unhealthy fats is much greater health concern Carbohydrates: Ideal Source of Energy - Supplies energy to body cells - 2 groups o Simple carbohydrates  Sucrose, fructose, maltose, lactose o Complex carbohydrates  Grains, legumes, tubers - During digestions, carbs broken down to glucose which stimulate pancreas to release insulin - Seem to overindulge on simple carbs than complex carbs - Refined carbs vs whole grains o Whole grains is better (look for 100% grain) - All grains are whole grains before processing - During processing, germ and bran removed leaving starchy endosperm - Insulin and glucose levels rise and fall following meal or snack containing any type of carb - Glycemic index: measure of how ingestion of particular food affect blood glucose levels - Meals containing high glycemic index foods increase appetite and diet rich in foods increase risk of diabetes and heart disease o Higher glycemic index – blood sugar rise very quickly when eating that type of food - Experts recommend adults consume 45%-65% of their total daily calories as carbs - Focus should be consuming variety of food rich in complex carbs, especially whole grains Sugar - Easy to be become confused by various sugars and sweeteners - Sugar trigger heroine triggers in brain o If withdraw then will have withdrawal symptoms - Sweetener not necessarily better for you o Splenda, Sweet and Low  Have aspartame that isn’t very good for you - Basic overview: o Dextrose, fructose, glucose all monosaccharids (simple sugars) o Primary difference is how body metabolizes them  Ex. glucose and dextrose same sugar (very similar in form)  But food manufactures usually use term dextrose in ingredient list  B/c dextrose metabolized in body in more helpful way - Simple sugars can combine to form more complex sugars o Ex. disaccharide sucrose (table sugar)  = to half glucose and half fructose - High fructose corn syrup (HFCS): 55% fructose, 45% glucose o Can be harmful cause spikes glucose levels o Really cheap so use in pop and stuff - Ethanol (drinking alcohol) not sugar o But beer and wine contain residual sugars and starches in addition to alcohol o Combine sugar with alcohol, feel worse than just drinking pure alcohol - Sugar alcohol are not sugars or alcohols but becoming popular as sweeteners o Ex. xylitol, glycerol, sorbitol, maltitol, mannitol, erythritol o Incompletely absorbed from small intestine so provide fewer calories than sugar  Cause bloating, diarrhea, and flatulence - Fluoride in water seem to reduce cavities but toxic o Trying to get out of water and toothpaste o Fuzzies on teeth = bacteria creating a web  Xylitol make it so that can’t create web  Xylitol doesn’t spike blood levels - Sucralose (Splenda) o Not sugar o Chlorinated artificial sweetener in line with aspartame and saccharin o Detrimental health effects - Agave syrup o Falsely advertised as natural o Highly processed o 80% fructose o End product doesn’t remotely resemble original agave plant - Honey o 53% fructose o Natural in its raw form o Many health benefits when in moderation  Ex. antioxidants  In moderation to keep blood levels constant - Stevia o Highly sweet herb derived from leaf of South American stevia plant o Safe (in its natural form) o Lo han (luohanguo) – nautral sweetner  Derived from fruit - If diet was like that of people a century ago, consume 15 g/day o Now, 73g/day from sweetened drinks - In vegetables and fruits, mixed with vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and beneficial phytonutrients o All moderate negative metabolic effects - 25% of people consume more than 130 g of fructose/ day - 2 overall reasons fructose is damaging o 1. Body metabolizes fructose much differently than glucose  Entire burden lies on liver  Live metabolize and regulate hormone levels o 2. People consume fructose in enormous quantities, made negative effects much m
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