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Lecture 8

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Lecture 8 Cancer Cancer - 2 leading cause of death (after heart disease) - In Canada, cancer responsible for ¼ deaths o 73500 deaths annually o 1450 deaths each week o 476 diagnoses each day - Leading cause of disease-related death among people under 65 - Cancer isn’t age-related - Many cancers can be prevented What is Cancer? - Abnormal and uncontrolled multiplication of cells that can lead to death o Has ability to surround certain tissue - Tumour o Mass of tissue that serve no physiological purpose o Benign tumour = mass of cells enclosed in membrane that prevent penetration of other tissues o Malignant tumor = ability to invade surrounding tissues o Every case of cancer begins as change in cell that allows it to grow and divide when it should not Metastasis - Spreading of cancer cells from one part of body to another - Primary tumor o Original location of cancer - Metastasizing o Travelling and seeding process of cancerous cells - Secondary tumor o New tumours result from metastases The Incidence of Cancer - 2010 - ~83900 women and 90000 men diagnosed with cancer in Canada - Canadian Cancer Society estimate 5 year survival rate for all cancers diagnosed between 2002-2004 = 62% - At current Canadian incident rates, nearly 45% of men and 40% of women develop cancer at some point in their lives - Researchers estimate 90% of skin cancer can be prevented by protecting skin from rays of sun  Skin cancer- have to wear sunscreen and shouldn’t be in sun but need sun to get vitamin D o 87% of lung cancer can be prevented by avoid exposure to tobacco smoke - Improved diet and controlled body weight can decrease cases of colon, breast, and uterine cancer o Uterine cancer- something that goes undetected so regular pap screen important - Regular screenings have potential to save additional 100,000 lives per year Lung Cancer - Incidence o 14% of all new cancer diagnoses o Most common cause of cancer death in Canada (394/ week) o Leading cause of cancer death in women - Risk factor o Smoking o Exposure to other carcinogens and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) - Detection and treatment o Symptoms don’t typically appear until invasive stage o Persistent cough, chest pain, recurring bronchitis o Radiation and chemo treatments  May go into remission - Problem – not detected until it’s too late Colon and Rectal Cancer - Risk factor o Age, heredity, polyps, chronic bowel inflammation, type 2 diabetes, lifestyle, diet (red and processed meats) - Detection and treatment o Regular screening at age 50  Stool blood test o Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy  o Surgery o Radiation and chemotherapy Breast Cancer - Incidence o Most common in women  Rare in men o Canada  1/9 women develop breast cancer  1/28 die from disease o 22700 diagnosed  5400 die in next year - Risk factors o Genetics, early onset of menstruation (have higher levels of estrogen for longer period of time), late onset of menopause, have no children or have first child after age 30, use of hormone replacement therapy, obesity, alcohol use  Hormone replacement therapy (now have bioidentical replacements that are more effective and better for health) o Estrogen can be unifying element for many risk factors - Early Detection o Mammogram  Some don’t like because think don’t get as good pictures and exposed to radiation  Now leaning towards ultrasound o Clinical breast exam o Breast awareness - Treatment o Surgery  Lumpectomy to mastectomy o New strategies for treatment and prevention include use of new drugs which block effects of estrogen in some parts of body Prostate Cancer - Most common cancer in men - Third leading cause of cancer death o 25500 new cases o 4400 die each year - Risk factor o Age o Diets  High in calories, dairy, animal fats  Low in plant o Obesity, inactivity, history of STD o Type 2 diabetes o Insulin resistance - Detect
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