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Lecture

Chapter 11 All the information plus the blanks and extra information said in class

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Department
Health Sciences
Course
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Professor
Shauna Burke
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 11 Tobacco Use Required Reading: Chapter 11, pp. 299-327 TOBACCO  Smoking is the most preventable cause of disease and premature death in Canada  Every cigarette a person smokes reduces life expectancy by approximately 11 minutes  More than 37 000 people die prematurely each year in Canada due to tobacco use  Tobacco in any form is unsafe  Tobacco use is widespread in our society Nicotine Addiction  An addiction involving physical dependence on the psychoactive drug Nicotine “a poisonous, addictive substance found in tobacco and responsible for many of the effects of tobacco”  Addicted users must keep a steady amount of nicotine in the blood and going to the brain  If that amount decreases, they experience withdrawal symptoms  Nicotine addiction can start within a few days of smoking and after just a few cigarettes Health Hazards of Cigarette Smoking  Negative effects on nearly every organ of body and decrease overall health  Related to more than two dozen diseases and conditions  Contain more than four thousand chemicals, at least fifty that are carcinogens or co-carcinogens and/or irritate the tissues of the respiratory system  Smoke contains carbon monoxide in concentrations four hundred times greater than safety threshold in workplaces Health Hazards of Cigarette Smoking  Amount of chemicals in each cigarette is small, however: o It is cumulative – the chemicals build up in our systems o Amount stored in body increases with each puff (> 10 puffs per cigarette) o > 1 year at 1 pack per day = 73 000 puffs of chemical Long-Term Effects of Smoking  Decrease life expectancy: o On average, smokers live 10-15 years less than nonsmokers Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)  Commonly called second hand smoke Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)  Consists of: o Mainstream smoke  exhaled by smokers o Sidestream smoke from burning of end of the cigarette, cigar, or pipe  Sidestream smoke contains higher concentrations of toxic and carcinogenic compounds (at least 2x the nicotine and tar)  Nearly 85% of the smoke in a room where someone is smoking is sidestream smoke Effects of ETS  Labeled a “Class A” cancer-causing substance (most dangerous of cancer agents, no known safe exposure level; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)  Regular exposure to ETS increases chances of contracting lung disease by 25% and heart disease by 10%  At least 1000 non-smokers die from exposure to ETS in Canada each year o > 300 from lung cancer o At least 700 from coronary heart disease  Coughs, headaches, nasal discomfort, eye irritation, breathlessness, sinus problems, etc. Health Canada, 2007 Children and ETS  Children have increased metabolism and can absorb more smoke than adults – kids inhale more deeply and more frequently, they have a smaller body so they are inhaling more pollutants  ETS triggers aprox.150 000- 300 000 cases of bronchitis, pneumonia, and other respiratory infections in infants and toddlers each year  Can induce and exacerbate symptoms of asthma in children  10% of children- twelve years and younger- regularly exposed to ETS in the home (Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey, 2006) Smoking and Pregnancy  20% - 30% of pregnant women use tobacco throughout pregnancy  Only 13-21% of female smokers quit when finding out they are pregnant- half of them ATTEMPT to quit  50% of those who quit during pregnancy relapse to smoking within six months  80% of those pregnant women who smoke, relapse within a year  Smoking almost doubles a pregnant woman’s chance of having a miscarriage o Younger women when they are younger tend to smoke when they are pregnant o Women without a partner are more likely to smoke during pregnancy o Women who have a partner that smokes more likely to smoke during pregnancy o Women who are less educated more likely to smoke during pregnancy Health Canada, 2007 Smoking and Pregnancy  Causes approx. 4600 infant deaths/year due to premature delivery and problems with placenta  Nicotine can cross placental barrier and decreases blood flow to baby  18% of all SIDS- sudden infant death syndrome, sudden and unexplained death of healthy infants up to the age on one year- due to maternal tobacco use  May lead to low birth weight and increased risk for infections and other potentially fatal problems  Babies of mothers who smoke more than two pack
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