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Chapter 12 All the information plus the blanks and extra information said in class

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter Twelve Nutrition Basics Required Reading: Ch. 12 (pp.329-377) Diet and Nutrition  An area in which you have increased control o Some things are out of our control like the cost of food o But most things we put in our mouth is under our control  Provides body with nutrients required to produce energy, repair damaged tissue, promote tissue growth, regulate physiological processes  Choosing a healthy diet involves: 1. Knowing which nutrients are necessary and in which amounts  Social determinance in what you eat 2. Translating those requirements into a diet consisting of foods you like and that are available/affordable  Have to have knowledge of what is healthy to make a healthy diet Nutritional Requirements  Body requires proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water = ESSETNIAL nutrients  Essential = must get substances from food because body is unable to manufacture them (or not make enough to meet physiological needs)  Body obtains nutrients through digestion  Energy in food expressed in kilocalories = scientific expression of the energy value of a food Nutritional Requirements  Three classes of essential nutrients supply energy: o FAT = 9 calories per gram o PROTEIN = 4 calories per gram o CARBOHYDRATE = 4 calories per gram **If all types of calories > energy needs = converted to fat and stored in the body If you are taking in more calories than you are expending, they are in excess then you will gain weight no matter what type of calories Proteins  Found in every living cell  Promotes growth and maintenance of body tissue  Primary component of muscle and connective tissue  Form important parts of blood, enzymes, some hormones, and cell membranes  Composed of chains of amino acids- building blocks of proteins  When an essential amino acid is missing from diet  deficiency Proteins  Foods that contain eight essential amino acids are COMPLETE PROTEINS (milk, meat, fish, poultry, cheese, eggs, soy beans, tofu)  Foods that contain less than eight essential amino acids are INCOMPLETE PROTEINS (vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts)  Essential amino acids can be obtained from combinations of incomplete protein sources (e.g., red beans and rice) Fats  Provide a concentrated form of energy  Give some foods a pleasing taste, texture  Help absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K o Need fat to absorb these vitamins into the system  Insulates our bodies to help retain heat  Provides a protective cushion for internal organs and bones  Visible fats represent only approx. 40% of the fat we consume Fats (lipids) Dietary fat consists of a combination of 3 forms of fat based on _: 1. Saturated  typically solid at room temperature  found naturally in animal products (e.g., meat, cheese) 2. Monounsaturated  typically liquid at room temperature  usually from plant sources (e.g., olive and canola oil) 3. Polyunsaturated  typically liquid at room temperature  usually from plant sources (e.g., soybean and corn oil)  includes 2 essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6) - we do need fat in our body 3-4 teaspoons of olive oil would give you enough fats for the day Fats (Lipids)  Food fats usually composed of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids  Dominant type of fatty acid determines the fat’s characteristics (e.g., solid vs. liquid) EXCEPTION #1:  Hydrogenation o a process by which hydrogens are added to unsaturated fats o turns liquid oils into solids (when the hydrogens are added) o produces a mixture of saturated fatty acids and standard and trans forms of unsaturated fatty acids (trans fats are the ones you should completely be avoiding in diet) Fat (Lipids)  Trans fatty acids- unsaturated fatty acids  Used to increase stability of oil so it can be reused for deep frying, to increase texture of foods, and to increase shelf life of foods  Also found in small amounts in meat and milk (trans fats are produced in the guts of these animals, the trans fats that are naturally made by the animal are different than the man-made trans fats)  Leading sources are deep-fried foods, baked and snack foods, and stick margarine **the softer (or more liquid) a fat is, the less saturated and trans fat it is likely to contain Fats (Lipids) EXCEPTION #2:  Tropical Oils o E.g., coconut, palm, palm kernel o Contain higher percentages of saturated fats (e.g., coconut oil = 92% saturated fat) o Can be found in some brands of snack foods, breakfast cereals, etc. o Have been removed from national brands of baked goods Fats (Lipids) and Cholesterol  Low –density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol- “bad cholesterol” o Saturated and trans fatty acids higher blood levels o Unsaturated fatty acids lower blood levels (reduce LDL)  High- density lipoprotein cholesterol- “good cholesterol” o Monounsaturated fatty acids may raise blood levels o Trans fatty acids may reduce blood levels in large amounts (reduce the good cholesterol) **Choose unsaturated fats instead of saturated and trans fats to decreased risk of heart disease Carbohydrates  Various combinations of sugar units (saccharides)  Used primarily for energy  Occur in three forms: 1) Monosaccharide (one unit) Simple  e.g., glucose (blood sugar) Carbohydrate
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