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Health Sciences 1001A/B Lecture Notes - Trans Fat, Essential Amino Acid, Coconut Oil

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

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Chapter Twelve
Nutrition Basics
Required Reading: Ch. 12 (pp.329-377)
Diet and Nutrition
An area in which you have increased control
o Some things are out of our control like the cost of food
o But most things we put in our mouth is under our control
Provides body with nutrients required to produce energy, repair damaged tissue, promote
tissue growth, regulate physiological processes
Choosing a healthy diet involves:
1. Knowing which nutrients are necessary and in which amounts
Social determinance in what you eat
2. Translating those requirements into a diet consisting of foods you like and that are
Have to have knowledge of what is healthy to make a healthy diet
Nutritional Requirements
Body requires proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water = ESSETNIAL nutrients
Essential = must get substances from food because body is unable to manufacture them (or not
make enough to meet physiological needs)
Body obtains nutrients through digestion
Energy in food expressed in kilocalories = scientific expression of the energy value of a food
Nutritional Requirements
Three classes of essential nutrients supply energy:
o FAT = 9 calories per gram
o PROTEIN = 4 calories per gram
o CARBOHYDRATE = 4 calories per gram
**If all types of calories > energy needs = converted to fat and stored in the body
If you are taking in more calories than you are expending, they are in excess then you will gain weight no
matter what type of calories
Found in every living cell
Promotes growth and maintenance of body tissue
Primary component of muscle and connective tissue
Form important parts of blood, enzymes, some hormones, and cell membranes
Composed of chains of amino acids- building blocks of proteins
When an essential amino acid is missing from diet deficiency
Foods that contain eight essential amino acids are COMPLETE PROTEINS (milk, meat, fish,
poultry, cheese, eggs, soy beans, tofu)
Foods that contain less than eight essential amino acids are INCOMPLETE PROTEINS (vegetables,
grains, legumes, nuts)

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Essential amino acids can be obtained from combinations of incomplete protein sources (e.g.,
red beans and rice)
Provide a concentrated form of energy
Give some foods a pleasing taste, texture
Help absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K
o Need fat to absorb these vitamins into the system
Insulates our bodies to help retain heat
Provides a protective cushion for internal organs and bones
Visible fats represent only approx. 40% of the fat we consume
Fats (lipids)
Dietary fat consists of a combination of 3 forms of fat based on _:
1. Saturated
typically solid at room temperature
found naturally in animal products (e.g., meat, cheese)
2. Monounsaturated
typically liquid at room temperature
usually from plant sources (e.g., olive and canola oil)
3. Polyunsaturated
typically liquid at room temperature
usually from plant sources (e.g., soybean and corn oil)
includes 2 essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6)
- we do need fat in our body 3-4 teaspoons of olive oil would give you enough fats for the day
Fats (Lipids)
Food fats usually composed of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
Dominant type of fatty acid determines the fat’s characteristics (e.g., solid vs. liquid)
o a process by which hydrogens are added to unsaturated fats
o turns liquid oils into solids (when the hydrogens are added)
o produces a mixture of saturated fatty acids and standard and trans forms of unsaturated
fatty acids (trans fats are the ones you should completely be avoiding in diet)
Fat (Lipids)
Trans fatty acids- unsaturated fatty acids
Used to increase stability of oil so it can be reused for deep frying, to increase texture of foods,
and to increase shelf life of foods
Also found in small amounts in meat and milk (trans fats are produced in the guts of these
animals, the trans fats that are naturally made by the animal are different than the man-made
trans fats)
Leading sources are deep-fried foods, baked and snack foods, and stick margarine
**the softer (or more liquid) a fat is, the less saturated and trans fat it is likely to contain
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