Health Sciences 1001A/B Lecture Notes - Synovial Joint, Body Composition, Cardiovascular Disease

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Chapter Thirteen
Exercise for Health and Fitness
Required Reading:
Chapter 13, pp. 379-413
The Benefits of Exercise
Scientists have studied the effects of exercise on health and functioning for the past forty years
Found to be the most important action you can take to improve wellness
Decrease impact of disease, increase energy levels, increase immune function and increase
emotional well-being
o Exercise can act at a treatment for some diseases
UNDER YOUR CONTROL- have complete control as to how much exercise you get
The Benefits of Exercise
Reduced Risk of Heart Disease:
o Regular exercise strengthens the heart and enables it to work more efficiently
Improved Bone Health:
o Regular weight bearing exercise improves the strength and density of bone
Implications for osteoporosis
Regular aerobic exercise improves the integrity of cartilage in synovial joints
o Implications for osteoarthritis
The Benefits of Exercise
More efficient metabolism :
o Physically fit person better able to generate energy and regulate hormones
Protect against free radical damage (atoms or molecules that can cause cellular damage and
impair immune functioning):
o Produced during normal metabolic process
o Activates antioxidant enzymes that prevent free radical damage and maintain health of
body cells
The Benefits of Exercise
Improved body composition :
o Through direct energy expenditure and improving fat mass to fat-free mass ratio
o Reduced risk of death regardless of body composition (overweight, underweight, standard
weight, doesn’t matter)
o People who exercise are less likely to die from all causes than sedentary people
Psychological and Emotional Wellness
People who are physically active experience social, psychological and emotional benefits
o Reduced stress
o Reduced anxiety and depression
o Increase self image
o Increase learning and memory
Enjoyment correlation not cause and effect
Half of university students are not healthy enough to achieve the health benefits of exercise
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Physical Fitness
A set of health of performance-related attributes related to the ability to engage in physical
5 components of physical fitness:
1. Cardiorespiratory endurance
2. Muscular strength
3. Muscular endurance
4. Flexibility
5. Body composition
Components of Physical Fitness
1. Cardiorespiratory endurance:
Ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercises
o Most are aerobic exercises
o Dynamic exercise- going through full range of emotion with your exercise
o Static- not moving as much, staying in one place
Depends on how well your heart, lungs and circulatory system are working
E.g., jogging or cycling, skating
Components of Physical Fitness
2. Muscular strength:
o Amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal effort
o Strong muscles are important for activities of daily living
o Developed by weight training and resistance training exercises
o Three types of muscle contractions
Concentric contractions- shortening the muscles
Eccentric contractions- lengthening the muscles
Isometric contractions- holding the muscle still
Components of Physical Fitness
3. Muscular endurance:
o Ability of a muscle group to remain contracted and resist fatigue
o Muscular endurance important for postural muscles to hold the spine in the correct
alignment and reduce strain
o Developed through weight training
Components of Physical Fitness
4. Flexibility:
o Ability to move joints through full range of motion
o Stretching exercises and activities such as yoga can help minimize stiffness and maintain
optional range of motion
o Should hold a static stretch for 15-30 seconds
Components of Physical Fitness
5. Body composition:
o Proportion of fat to fat-free mass in the body
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o Healthy body composition involves increase proportion of fat-free mass and acceptably low
level of body fat
o A person with increase body fat is more likely to experience a variety of health problems (a
lot of problems with fat about the abdominal area)
Designing your Exercise Program
Physical Activity:
o Any body movement carried out by skeletal muscles and requiring energy
o Planned, structured, repetitive movement designed specifically to improve or maintain
Difference between physical activity and exercise physical activity includes any activity that
will increase your heart rate (vacuuming, dusting, gardening)BUT exercise is your planned,
structured activity that you work into your schedule
Basic Principles of Training
o to develop a fitness component, you must perform exercise specifically designed for that
o training should match that thing you are trying to develop
o if training for strength should do weight training, not cycling
Progressive overload:
o the amount of stress placed on the body
o a gradual increase in amount of overload adaption that improves fitness (constant
challenge, challenging muscles )
o depends on current level of fitness (progressive therefore take it slowly, step by step)
o FITT principle
Basic Principles of Training
o body’s ability to adjust to decreased of physical activity
o possible to lose up to fifty percent of fitness improvements within two months
Individual differences:
o limits to the potential for improvement (everyone is built different, different genetics, and
this limits the way we perform in certain sports, etc. everyone has a RANGE in which we are
stuck with)
o large individual differences in ability to increase fitness and perform well at sports/activities
Basic Principles of Training:
FITT Principle (how often)
Frequency (how hard)
Time (how long)
Type (what mode)
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