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Chapter 13 All the information plus the blanks and extra information said in class

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter Thirteen Exercise for Health and Fitness Required Reading: Chapter 13, pp. 379-413 The Benefits of Exercise  Scientists have studied the effects of exercise on health and functioning for the past forty years  Found to be the most important action you can take to improve wellness  Decrease impact of disease, increase energy levels, increase immune function and increase emotional well-being o Exercise can act at a treatment for some diseases • UNDER YOUR CONTROL- have complete control as to how much exercise you get The Benefits of Exercise  Reduced Risk of Heart Disease: o Regular exercise strengthens the heart and enables it to work more efficiently  Improved Bone Health: o Regular weight bearing exercise improves the strength and density of bone • Implications for osteoporosis  Regular aerobic exercise improves the integrity of cartilage in synovial joints o Implications for osteoarthritis The Benefits of Exercise  More efficient metabolism : o Physically fit person better able to generate energy and regulate hormones  Protect against free radical damage (atoms or molecules that can cause cellular damage and impair immune functioning): o Produced during normal metabolic process o Activates antioxidant enzymes that prevent free radical damage and maintain health of body cells The Benefits of Exercise  Improved body composition : o Through direct energy expenditure and improving fat mass to fat-free mass ratio  Longevity: o Reduced risk of death regardless of body composition (overweight, underweight, standard weight, doesn’t matter) o People who exercise are less likely to die from all causes than sedentary people Psychological and Emotional Wellness  People who are physically active experience social, psychological and emotional benefits o Reduced stress o Reduced anxiety and depression o Increase self image o Increase learning and memory  Enjoyment – correlation not cause and effect  Half of university students are not healthy enough to achieve the health benefits of exercise Physical Fitness  A set of health of performance-related attributes related to the ability to engage in physical activity  5 components of physical fitness: 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance 2. Muscular strength 3. Muscular endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body composition Components of Physical Fitness 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance:  Ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercises o Most are aerobic exercises o Dynamic exercise- going through full range of emotion with your exercise o Static- not moving as much, staying in one place  Depends on how well your heart, lungs and circulatory system are working  E.g., jogging or cycling, skating Components of Physical Fitness 2. Muscular strength: o Amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal effort o Strong muscles are important for activities of daily living o Developed by weight training and resistance training exercises o Three types of muscle contractions  Concentric contractions- shortening the muscles  Eccentric contractions- lengthening the muscles  Isometric contractions- holding the muscle still Components of Physical Fitness 3. Muscular endurance: o Ability of a muscle group to remain contracted and resist fatigue o Muscular endurance important for postural muscles to hold the spine in the correct alignment and reduce strain o Developed through weight training Components of Physical Fitness 4. Flexibility: o Ability to move joints through full range of motion o Stretching exercises and activities such as yoga can help minimize stiffness and maintain optional range of motion o Should hold a static stretch for 15-30 seconds Components of Physical Fitness 5. Body composition: o Proportion of fat to fat-free mass in the body o Healthy body composition involves increase proportion of fat-free mass and acceptably low level of body fat o A person with increase body fat is more likely to experience a variety of health problems (a lot of problems with fat about the abdominal area) Designing your Exercise Program  Physical Activity: o Any body movement carried out by skeletal muscles and requiring energy  Exercise: o Planned, structured, repetitive movement designed specifically to improve or maintain function  Difference between physical activity and exercise – physical activity includes any activity that will increase your heart rate (vacuuming, dusting, gardening)BUT exercise is your planned, structured activity that you work into your schedule Basic Principles of Training  Specificity: o to develop a fitness component, you must perform exercise specifically designed for that component o training should match that thing you are trying to develop o if training for strength should do weight training, not cycling  Progressive overload: o the amount of stress placed on the body o a gradual increase in amount of overload  adaption that improves fitness (constant challenge, challenging muscles ) o depends on current level of fitness (progressive therefore take it slowly, step by step) o FITT principle Basic Principles of Training  Reversibility: o body’s ability to adjust to decreased of physical activity o possible to lose up to fifty percent of fitness improvements within two months  Individual differences: o limits to the potential for improvement (everyone is built different, different genetics, and this limits the way we perform in certain sports, etc. everyone has a RANGE in which we are stuck with) o large individual differences in ability to increase fitness and perform well at sports/activities Basic Principles of Training:  FITT Principle (how often)  Frequency (how hard)  Time (how long)  Type (what mode) Cardiorespiratory Endurance and Body Composition • F 3-5 days per week • I 55/65 – 90% of maximum heart rate (220-age = maximum heart rate) • T 20- 60 minutes in session lasting 10 minutes or more • T continuous and rhythmic aerobic activities using large-muscle groups TOP TEST- if you can speak in complete sentences you are working eighty percent of your max. heart rate, if you can only get out half the sentences you are using eighty- ninety percent of your max heart rate, if you can only get out a few words you are using more than ninety percent of your max heart rate Strength Training • F At least two days per week (if its getting to easy, increase weight if you are going weight training) • I  Sufficient resistance to fatigue muscles • T 8-10/12 repetitions of each exercise, 1 or more sets (if you are going to your twelfth repetition and it’s too easy, you should increase the weight because there should always be an overload on your muscles ) • T Resistance exercises for all major muscle groups (biggest muscle groups first) Flexibility Training • F 2-3 per week (ideally 5-7) • I Stretch to the point of tension • T2-4 repetitions of each exercise, held for AT LEAST 15-30 seconds • T Stretching exercises for all major joints  Canadians have 30-60 minutes of moderate activity each day Designing your Exercise Program: Canadian Recommendations  Canadian Physical Activity Guides o Children o Youth o Older Adult  All recommendations are similar to one another are framed in the same three categories: Cardiovascular, strengthening and flexibility  63% of Canadians are not healthy enough to achieve benefits of physical activit
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