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Health and Exercise Psychology Powerpoint information plus the blanks and additional info said in class

13 Pages

Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

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Introduction to Health and Exerthse Psychology Lecture 15 November 18 , 2010 Required Reading: Carron, A. V., & Burke, S. M. (2005). Context and physical activity: The influence of others. Sport and Exercise Psychology Review, 1, 23-31. *posted on WebCT Introduction What is Psychology? o The study of behaviour and mental processes (Atkinson, Atkinson, Smith, & Bem, 1990) What is Health Psychology? o Devoted to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why they become ill, and how people respond when they get ill o Health psychologists study these issues and promote interventions to help people stay well or get over illness What is Health Psychology? o Wellness at the core of health psychologists conception of health balance among physical, mental, and social well-being = optimum state of health o Concerned with all aspects of health and illness across the life span (older adult and birth) Health Psychologists focus on 1. Health promotion and maintenance How to get children to develop good health habits How to promote regular exercise How to design media campaign to get people to improve their diets Health Psychologists focus on 2. Prevention and Treatment of illness Teach people how to manage stress effectively Help individuals adjust to their illness and/or learn to follow their treatment regimen Health Psychologists focus on 3. Etiology and treatment of illness Etiology the origins or causes of illness Interested in the behavioural and social factors that contribute to health or illness Can include alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise, the wearing of seat belts, and ways of coping with stress Health Psychologists focus on 4. The health care system and the formulation of health policy Study impact of health institutions and health professionals on peoples behaviour Develop recommendations for improving health care The Mind-Body Relationship: A Brief History Earliest times (< 4th Century) o Mind and body considered a unit o Disease arises when evil spirits enter the body (and remain in the body) o Evil spirits can be exorcised through the treatment process (trephination carved holes in the skull to remove evil spirits- and rituals) Hippocrates (4th Century) ascribed disease states to bodily factors(humoral theory flem, blood, black vile, yellow vile 4 fluids); believed these factors had an impact on the mind Middle Ages supernatural explanations of illness dominated (treatment = torture, prayer,good works) Renaissancegrowth in scientific understanding and technology basics of medical practice; medicine looked to bodily factors rather than the mind- autopsy whats causing disease Freud (1856-1939) rise of modern psychology; link between unconscious conflict and physical disturbances Psychosomatic medicine (1930s +): o Linked personalities to specific Illnesses (but now we know that personalities are not the only reason for disease, there are many other factors that have to be taken into consideration) o Bodily disorders (e.g., ulcers, hyperthyroidism, colitis, etc.) caused by emotional conflicts o Many of these ideas persist today despite several criticisms o Laid groundwork for change in beliefs about the relation of the mind and the body (was seen as one, not seen as separate things) Now known that: o Physical health is interwoven with the psychological and social environment o Staying well is heavily determined by good health habits and by socially determined factors (e.g., stress, social support) o The mind and body cannot be separated in matters of health and illness (impossible to have a full understanding disease without looking at mind and body) Adequate knowledge of what makes people healthy is impossible without knowing the psychological and stress contexts within which health and illness are experienced Mind body interaction one of many factors that spawned the field of health psychology The Biopsychosocial Model in Health Psychology - Most health psychologists base their research and work on this model o Health and illness consequences of biological, psychological and social factors o Figures prominently in health psychology research and clinical issues Biomedical Model o Illness biological malfunction (focus only on biology to try to show the effects of disease) o Governed thinking of most health practitioners over past 300 years o Assumes a mind-body dualism (the mind and body are separate), is reductionistic o Emphasizes illness Advantages of the Biopsychosocial Model Marco level processes (e.g., social support, depression- environment and psychological) & micro level processes (cellular disorders, chemical imbalances) interactto produce a state of health or illness Emphasizes health and illness (even if you have a disease does not mean that you are not well, can still have wellness) Systems theory change in one level will effect change in other levels Practitioners must understand social and psychological factors that contribute toillness What is Health Psychology TrainingFor? Career in Practise o Medicine, allied health professional fields (socialwork, occupational therapy, physical therapy,public health, dietetics) Careers in Research o Research in public health, psychology, medicine o Typically work in academic settings, publicagencies, hospitals, clinics, etc. Exercise Psychology The journey of a thousand miles starts in front of your feet- Lao-Tzu Exercise Adherence Adherence: sticking to or faithfully conforming to a standard of behaviour in order to meet some goal Despite the numerous benefits associated with exercise, many people still do not exercise regularly Are People Sticking To It?? Majority of the population is not active at levels sufficient to result in health benefits or disease preventions Approximately 20-50% of adults who begin an exercise program withdraw within the first 6 months Dishman, 1988; Oldridge, 1984; Ward & Morgan, 1984 Determinants (whats leading/contributing to it) of Exercise Adherence o Personal Factors o Social Factors o Situational Factors o Program Factors Personal Factors Demographics (e.g., descriptive information about a person- income person that has a higher income is more likely to exercise and have a healthy living, education - more educated person is more likely to have a healthy lifestyle, occupation, age- elders are less physically active, gender- boys are more active than girls) Behaviour (e.g., past program participation, diet)
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