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Lecture 1

Health Sciences 1001A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Caffeine, Smoking Cessation, Transtheoretical Model

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

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Chapter 1:
Health: The state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1948)
Health is therefore seen as a resource for everyday life…Health is a positive concept
emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities (Who 1986)
oAn expanded idea of health
oThe ability to live fully, with vitality and meaning
oLargely determined by personal decisions on how to live life
oNot a static goal but a dynamic process of change and growth
oEncompasses 7 interrelated dimensions
7 Dimensions of Health:
oPhysical wellness
Requires healthy eating, exercise, learning of disease, getting regular
checkups and so on
Influences quality of life and longevity of life
Health related quality of life = a personal sense of physical and mental
health, requiring a full range of functional capacity to enable people to
work play, and maintain satisfying relationships
oInterpersonal/Social Wellness
Involves learning effective communication skills, developing a capacity
for intimacy, and having a support netwoek
Requires participating and contributing to the community, country and
oIntellectual Wellness
Includes an openness to new ideas, a capacity to think critically and to
learn new skills
Ability to process and use information is one of the most important aspects
oOccupational Wellness
A sense of personal satisfaction derived from career or career development
Involves attaining a work and life balance
oEmotional Wellness
Includes: optimism, trust, self-esteem, self-control, ability to share feelings
Monitoring feelings, identifying emotional wellbeing obstacles, finding
solutions to emotional problems
Most closely related to personal feelings
oEnvironmental Wellness
Personal health depends on the health of the planet (violence, pollution,
Required learning of and protecting yourself from hazards
Also involves taking action – Personally trying to lower or eliminate
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oSpiritual Wellness
Set of guiding beliefs, principles, or values that give meaning and purpose
to life
Capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, joy, altruism, and fulfillment
Lowers personal stress
Some health professionals believe is the core of wellness
Infections Vs. Chronic Diseases:
oInfectious: Communicable from one person to another
Tuberculosis, diphtheria etc.
Common Cold
oChronic: Develop and become worse over a period of time, caused in part (and
sometimes) by lifestyle factors
Heart Disease
Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats
oEarly-to-mid 1900’s
Life expectancy = 58.8 years (Male), 60.6 years (Female)
Health Threats = infectious diseases (e.g. cholera, tuberculosis,
Spread due to lack of clean water, poor sewage removal, crowding,
unsanitary food, preparation, etc.
Growing trade between countries moved diseases from one to the other
Sources of infectious diseases soon discovered
Became easier to control spread of disease, public health became
Adoption of vaccinations and development of antibiotics, Western society
controls the major causes of morbidity and mortality
Morbidity – illness or disease
Mortality – Death
People began to expect that modern medicine could conquer any illness
In some ways, this belief holds true today
oIn Canada:
Life expectancy (2007-2009): 78.8 years (Males), 83.3 (Females) (Avg.
81.1 years)
Health threats – chronic diseases (cancer, heart disease, stroke)
Some risk factors fall within the realm of a person’s “lifestyle”
Life expectancy in Canada is among the highest in the world
Most health regions with higher life expectancy are in and west of Ontario
Life Expectancy increases as:
Unemployment decreases
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