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Lecture 16

Health Sciences 1001A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Psychoactive Drug, Passive Smoking, Sidestream Smoke

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

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Chapter 16:
Smoking is the most preventable cause of disease and premature death in Canada
Every cigarette smoked reduces life expectancy ~11 mins
More than 37,000 people die prematurely each year in Canada due to tobacco
Tobacco in nay for is unsafe
Tobacco use is widespread in our society
Nicotine Addiction
oAn addiction involving physical dependence on psychoactive drug nicotine
oNicotine – “a poisonous, addictive substance found in tobacco, responsible for
many of the effects of tobacco”
oAddicted users must keep a steady amount of nicotine in the blood and going to
the brain
oIf that amount lowers, they experience withdrawal symptoms
oNicotine addiction can start within a few days of smoking and after just a few
Health Hazards
oNegative effects on nearly every organ and lowered overall health
oRelated to more than 2 dozen disease and conditions
oContain > 4000 chemicals, 40-50 of which are carcinogens or co-carcinogens
and/or irritate the tissues of the respiratory system
oSmoke contains carbon monoxide in concentrations 400x greater than safety
threshold in workplaces
oAmount of chemicals in each cigarette is small, however:
It is cumulative
Amount stored in body increases with each puff (>10 puffs per cigarette)
>1 year at 1 pack per day = 73,000 puffs of chemicals
Long term effects of smoking
oLower life expectancy: on average, smokers live 10-15 years less than non-
Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)
oCommonly called secondhand smoke
oConsists of:
Mainstream smoke – exhaled by smokers
Sidestream smoke – from burning of end of the cigarette, cigar, pipe
oSidestream smoke contains higher concentrations of toxic and carcinogenic
compounds (at least 2x the nicotine and tar)
oNearly 85% of the smoke in a room where someone is smoking is sidestream
oEffects of ETS:
Labeled a “Class A” cancer causing substance (most dangerous of cancer
agents, no known safe exposure; U.S. environmental protection agency)
Regular exposure to ETS increases chances of contracting lung disease by
25%, heart disease by 10%
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