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2012.02.28 - HSci 1001 Lecture Review Notes.docx

7 Pages

Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

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HealthSci Lecture Review Notes Chapter 6  Physical activity – any bodily movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy  Exercise = the most important action to improve wellness o 2011 guidelines = strength training twice a week and 10-150mins of moderate-vigorous intensity exercise every day  Overweight people should do 45-90mins more and higher intensity exercise o Decreases impact of disease, increases energy levels, increases immune function and increases emotional well-being  Reduced risk of heart disease – regular exercise strengthens heart and enables it to work more efficiently  Improved bone health – regular weight bearing exercise improves the strength and density of bone (implications for osteoporosis)  Regular aerobic exercise improves the integrity of cartilage in synovial joints (such as the knee) (implications for arthritis)  More efficient metabolism = better able to generate energy and regulate hormones  Protect against free radical damage – exercise activates antioxidant enzymes that prevent damage and maintain the health of body cells  Improved body composition – through energy expenditure and improving fat to fat free mass ratio  Longevity – decreases risk of death regardless of body composition  Decreases stress, anxiety and depression  Increases self-image, learning, memory and enjoyment  Physical training o Specificity – exercises specifically designed for you o Progressive overload – body adapts to demands of exercise and progressively increasing these demands allows fitness to increase  Demands = frequency, intensity, time, type o Reversibility – body adjusts the same way to lower levels of activity as high levels o Individual differences – everyone has different physical limits  Men = higher endurance capacity than women because of higher testosterone levels and lower levels of body fat o Drink at least ½ litre of fluid two hours before exercise, then enough during exercise to match fluid loss  Physical fitness – a set of health/performance-related attributes related to the ability to engage in physical activity o Cardiorespiratory endurance – ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercises  Depends on heart, lung and circulatory system functioning  Helps condition/make the heart stronger and improve cardiorespiratory functioning  Examples: jogging and cycling  Frequency = 3-5 days a week, more can lead to injuries  Intensity = primary purpose is to increase maximal oxygen consumption (maximum ability of cells to use oxygen)  Time = 20-60mins  Warm-up and cool-downs are important  Enhance your performance and decrease risk of injury  Increases body temperature, which helps spread synovial fluid throughout the joints to protect wear and tear  Stretch after the exercise because stretching before can temporarily decrease muscle strength and power o Muscular strength – amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal effort  Depends on size and nerves to activate muscle cells  Greater muscle mass means higher rate of metabolism – faster energy usage  Sarcopenia – people lose muscle cells and mass as they age  Developed by weight training and resistance training  Type = exercises with resistance that work the major muscles  Isometric (static) exercises = applying force without movement  Isotonic (dynamic) exercises = applying force with movement  Recommended 2 non-consecutive days per week  Intensity = amount of weight lifted  Time = number of repetitions o Muscular endurance – ability of a muscle group to remain contracted and resist fatigue  Important for postural muscle to hold the spine in the correct alignment and decrease strain  Developed through weight training o Flexibility – ability to move joints through a full range of motion  Depends on joint structure, length and elasticity  Developed through stretching and activities like yoga  Help minimize stiffness, maintain optimal range of motion and elongate muscles  Running decreases flexibility because it only uses a partial range of motion  Recommended 2-3 days a week o Body composition – proportion of fat to fat free mass in the body  A person with higher body fat is more likely to experience health problems o Skill related fitness – tends to be sport-specific and best developed through practice  Speed – ability to perform a movement in a short time  Power – ability to exert force rapidly, based on combination of strength and speed  Agility – ability to change the body’s position quickly and accurately  Balance – ability to maintain equilibrium while either moving or stationary  Coordination – ability to perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly by using body movements and the senses  Reaction time – ability to respond quickly to a stimulus  Fitness programs o Beginning phase – body adjusts to new type of activity o Progress phase – fitness increases o Maintenance phase – targeted level of fitness is sustained over long term  Fitness levels of Canadians have declined significantly over the last three decades o White and aboriginal people are more active than black, west Asian and Arabs  Disease Prevention and Management o Each year in Canada, over ¾ of deaths result from 4 non-communicable diseases:  Cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and respiratory disease  Cardiovascular disease (CVD) o Risk factors: sedentary lifestyle (inactive), smoking, unhealthy cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity o Physical inactivity increases risk of CVD by 50-240% o Prevention: improve cardiorespiratory endurance through aerobic exercise o Cardiac rehabilitation – aims to restore individuals who have suffered a myocardial infarction (heart attack) to optimal health  Achieved through an exercise only, or comprehensive program  People in these exercise programs show decreased mortality rates o Coronary heart disease (CHD) – involves blockage of one of the coronary arteries, which supply the heart with oxygenated blood  Obstructing one can cause a heart attack o Stroke – a blood vessel leading to the brain is ruptured or blocked  Cancer o Some studies show that increased physical activity decreases risk for all types of cancer  Strong evidence supports decreased risk of colon cancer by speeding movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract and lowering blood insulin levels  Data suggests decreased risk of breast, reproductive and prostate cancers  Some data shows decreased risk of pancreatic cancer o Exercise is shown to be effective during medical treatment, as well as in the stages of non-medical treatment or remission  Type 2 Diabetes o 2million Canadians have diabetes – expected to hit 3million by the end of the decade o 10% have type 1 diabetes, and 90% have type 2 diabetes o Increased diabetes rates are due to increased obesity rates and sedentary lifestyles o Contributing factor in ~41,400 Canadian deaths each year o Canadians adults with diabetes = twice as likely to die prematurely o Costs the Canadian health care system ~13.2billion per year o Can cost the individual with diabetes from $1000-$15000 per year o Complications of diabetes include: heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, peripheral neuropathies (nerve damage), circulation insufficiency (lead to amputations in some cases), and MSK injuries o Prevention:  Directly: exercise burns carbohydrates to help make cells more sensitive to insulin, which assist with decreasing blood glucose levels  Indirectly: improved body composition o Management:  Same as prevention mechanisms  Recent management strategies have followed a population health approach  In some cases, exercise could reverse diabetes  Osteoporosis – “porous bone” o To optimize bone health of the life span, healthy behaviours need to be adopted at a young age o ¼ women and 1/8 men get osteoporosis o Most common result of osteoporosis = bone fractures (typically in hip, spine and wrist) o Excessive height loss is not a result of aging, it is due to osteoporosis  Average height loss for normal aging = 0.5 inches o Major factors contributing to bone health = genetics, hormones, nutrition and physical activity o Risk
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