Class Notes (839,150)
Canada (511,218)
Health Sciences (2,117)
Shauna Burke (271)
Lecture

2012.02.28 - HSci 1001 Lecture Review Notes.docx

7 Pages
136 Views

Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Professor
Shauna Burke

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Description
HealthSci Lecture Review Notes Chapter 6  Physical activity – any bodily movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy  Exercise = the most important action to improve wellness o 2011 guidelines = strength training twice a week and 10-150mins of moderate-vigorous intensity exercise every day  Overweight people should do 45-90mins more and higher intensity exercise o Decreases impact of disease, increases energy levels, increases immune function and increases emotional well-being  Reduced risk of heart disease – regular exercise strengthens heart and enables it to work more efficiently  Improved bone health – regular weight bearing exercise improves the strength and density of bone (implications for osteoporosis)  Regular aerobic exercise improves the integrity of cartilage in synovial joints (such as the knee) (implications for arthritis)  More efficient metabolism = better able to generate energy and regulate hormones  Protect against free radical damage – exercise activates antioxidant enzymes that prevent damage and maintain the health of body cells  Improved body composition – through energy expenditure and improving fat to fat free mass ratio  Longevity – decreases risk of death regardless of body composition  Decreases stress, anxiety and depression  Increases self-image, learning, memory and enjoyment  Physical training o Specificity – exercises specifically designed for you o Progressive overload – body adapts to demands of exercise and progressively increasing these demands allows fitness to increase  Demands = frequency, intensity, time, type o Reversibility – body adjusts the same way to lower levels of activity as high levels o Individual differences – everyone has different physical limits  Men = higher endurance capacity than women because of higher testosterone levels and lower levels of body fat o Drink at least ½ litre of fluid two hours before exercise, then enough during exercise to match fluid loss  Physical fitness – a set of health/performance-related attributes related to the ability to engage in physical activity o Cardiorespiratory endurance – ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercises  Depends on heart, lung and circulatory system functioning  Helps condition/make the heart stronger and improve cardiorespiratory functioning  Examples: jogging and cycling  Frequency = 3-5 days a week, more can lead to injuries  Intensity = primary purpose is to increase maximal oxygen consumption (maximum ability of cells to use oxygen)  Time = 20-60mins  Warm-up and cool-downs are important  Enhance your performance and decrease risk of injury  Increases body temperature, which helps spread synovial fluid throughout the joints to protect wear and tear  Stretch after the exercise because stretching before can temporarily decrease muscle strength and power o Muscular strength – amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal effort  Depends on size and nerves to activate muscle cells  Greater muscle mass means higher rate of metabolism – faster energy usage  Sarcopenia – people lose muscle cells and mass as they age  Developed by weight training and resistance training  Type = exercises with resistance that work the major muscles  Isometric (static) exercises = applying force without movement  Isotonic (dynamic) exercises = applying force with movement  Recommended 2 non-consecutive days per week  Intensity = amount of weight lifted  Time = number of repetitions o Muscular endurance – ability of a muscle group to remain contracted and resist fatigue  Important for postural muscle to hold the spine in the correct alignment and decrease strain  Developed through weight training o Flexibility – ability to move joints through a full range of motion  Depends on joint structure, length and elasticity  Developed through stretching and activities like yoga  Help minimize stiffness, maintain optimal range of motion and elongate muscles  Running decreases flexibility because it only uses a partial range of motion  Recommended 2-3 days a week o Body composition – proportion of fat to fat free mass in the body  A person with higher body fat is more likely to experience health problems o Skill related fitness – tends to be sport-specific and best developed through practice  Speed – ability to perform a movement in a short time  Power – ability to exert force rapidly, based on combination of strength and speed  Agility – ability to change the body’s position quickly and accurately  Balance – ability to maintain equilibrium while either moving or stationary  Coordination – ability to perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly by using body movements and the senses  Reaction time – ability to respond quickly to a stimulus  Fitness programs o Beginning phase – body adjusts to new type of activity o Progress phase – fitness increases o Maintenance phase – targeted level of fitness is sustained over long term  Fitness levels of Canadians have declined significantly over the last three decades o White and aboriginal people are more active than black, west Asian and Arabs  Disease Prevention and Management o Each year in Canada, over ¾ of deaths result from 4 non-communicable diseases:  Cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and respiratory disease  Cardiovascular disease (CVD) o Risk factors: sedentary lifestyle (inactive), smoking, unhealthy cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity o Physical inactivity increases risk of CVD by 50-240% o Prevention: improve cardiorespiratory endurance through aerobic exercise o Cardiac rehabilitation – aims to restore individuals who have suffered a myocardial infarction (heart attack) to optimal health  Achieved through an exercise only, or comprehensive program  People in these exercise programs show decreased mortality rates o Coronary heart disease (CHD) – involves blockage of one of the coronary arteries, which supply the heart with oxygenated blood  Obstructing one can cause a heart attack o Stroke – a blood vessel leading to the brain is ruptured or blocked  Cancer o Some studies show that increased physical activity decreases risk for all types of cancer  Strong evidence supports decreased risk of colon cancer by speeding movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract and lowering blood insulin levels  Data suggests decreased risk of breast, reproductive and prostate cancers  Some data shows decreased risk of pancreatic cancer o Exercise is shown to be effective during medical treatment, as well as in the stages of non-medical treatment or remission  Type 2 Diabetes o 2million Canadians have diabetes – expected to hit 3million by the end of the decade o 10% have type 1 diabetes, and 90% have type 2 diabetes o Increased diabetes rates are due to increased obesity rates and sedentary lifestyles o Contributing factor in ~41,400 Canadian deaths each year o Canadians adults with diabetes = twice as likely to die prematurely o Costs the Canadian health care system ~13.2billion per year o Can cost the individual with diabetes from $1000-$15000 per year o Complications of diabetes include: heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, peripheral neuropathies (nerve damage), circulation insufficiency (lead to amputations in some cases), and MSK injuries o Prevention:  Directly: exercise burns carbohydrates to help make cells more sensitive to insulin, which assist with decreasing blood glucose levels  Indirectly: improved body composition o Management:  Same as prevention mechanisms  Recent management strategies have followed a population health approach  In some cases, exercise could reverse diabetes  Osteoporosis – “porous bone” o To optimize bone health of the life span, healthy behaviours need to be adopted at a young age o ¼ women and 1/8 men get osteoporosis o Most common result of osteoporosis = bone fractures (typically in hip, spine and wrist) o Excessive height loss is not a result of aging, it is due to osteoporosis  Average height loss for normal aging = 0.5 inches o Major factors contributing to bone health = genetics, hormones, nutrition and physical activity o Risk
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit