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2012.03.01 - HSci 1001 Lecture Review Notes.docx

5 Pages

Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

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HealthSci Lecture Review Notes Intro to Health and Exercise Psychology  Psychology – the study of behaviour and mental processes  Health psychology – devoted to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why they become ill, and how they respond when they become ill  Health psychologists - study these issues and promote interventions to help people stay healthy or get over illness o Wellness – balance among physical, mental and social well-being (optimum state of health)  At the core of health psychologists conception of health o Concerned with all aspects of health and illness across the lifespan o Focus on health promotion and maintenance  How to get children to develop good health habits  How to promote regular exercise  How to design media campaigns to get people to improve their diets o Focus on prevention and treatment of illness  Teach effective management techniques  Help individuals adjust to their illness and/or learn to follow their treatment regimen o Focus on etiology and correlates of health and illness  Etiology – the origins or causes of illness  The behavioural and social factors that contribute to health or illness  Can include alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise, wearing seat belts and ways of coping with stress (very broad topics) o Focus on the health care system and the formulation of health policy  Study impact of health institutions and health professionals on people’s behaviour  Develop recommendations for improving health care th  Mind-body relationship (< 4 century) o Mind and body considered one unit o Disease arises when evil spirits enter body o Evil spirits can be exorcised through the treatment process (trephination and rituals)  Trephination – drilled holes in the skulls to get rid of demons th  Hippocrates (4 century) o Humoral theory - ascribed disease states to bodily factors, and believed these factors had an impact on the mind o Believed there was an imbalance between 4 bodily fluids (blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile)  Middle Ages o Supernatural explanations of illness dominated  Treatments were torture, prayer, ‘good works’  Renaissance o Growth in scientific understanding and technological basis of medical practice o Medicine looked at bodily factors rather than the mind  Freud (1856-1939) o Rise of modern psychology o Link between unconscious conflict and physical disturbances  Psychosomatic medicine (1930s+) o Linked personalities to specific illnesses o Bodily disorders, such as ulcers, colitis, etc., caused by emotional conflict o Many of these ideas persist today, despite several criticisms o Laid groundwork for change in beliefs about the relation of the mind and the body  Presently o Physical health is interwoven with the psychological and social environment o Staying well is heavily determined by good health habits and by socially determined factors, such as stress, social support, etc. o The mind and the body cannot be separated in matters of health and illness o Need to know psychological and social contexts to explain health o Mind-body interaction is one of many factors that spawned the field of health psychology  The biopsychosocial model in health psychology o Health and illness are consequences of biological, psychological and social factors o Macrolevel and microlevel processes interact to produce a state of health or illness  Macrolevel – social support, depression, etc.  Microlevel – ceullar disorders, chemical imbalances, etc. o Emphasizes health and illness o Systems theory – a change in one level will affect change in other levels o Must understand social and psychological factors that contribute to illness, in addition to physical factors o Preferred by health psychologists  Biomedical model o Illness is due to biological malfunction o Governed thinking of most health practitioners over past 300 years o Assumes a mind-body dualism, and is reductionistic  Reductionistic – views health at most basic level, such as cellular o Emphasizes illness  Exercise psychology o Adherence – sticking to or faithfully conforming to a standard of behaviour in order to meet some goal o Despite the numerous benefits associated with exercise, many people still do not exercise regularly o Majority of population is not active enough to receive health benefits o Approx. 20-50% of adults who begin an exercise program withdraw within 6 months  Determinants of exercise adherence o Personal factors  Demographics – income, education, occupation, age, gender, etc.  Behaviour – past program participation, diet, etc.  Cognitive/Personality – self-efficacy, self-motivation, beliefs, expectations, etc. o Social factors  Social support  Important others – physician, colleagues, etc.  Family  Exercise leader  Other exercisers  Group cohesion o Situational factors  Convenience of exercise facility  Lack of time – very common excuse, more to do with priorities  Climate  People who live in extreme (cold or hot) climates are less active than people who
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