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2012.03.15 - HSci 1001 Lecture Review Notes.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

HealthSci Lecture Review Notes Chapter 14  Drug addiction – involves compulsive desire for drugs, need to increase dosage due to psychological and physiological dependence, harmful effects on individual and society  Drug habituation (or habit) – involves the same elements as addiction, but do not need to increase dosage o Has psychological, but not physical dependence  Addictive behaviour – habits that have gotten out of control, resulting in a negative impact on a person’s health o 5 Characteristics typically associated with addictive behaviours:  Reinforcement – some aspect of the behaviour is positive or releases negative feelings  Compulsion or craving  Loss of control over the behaviour  Escalation – need more and more  Negative consequences  Many behaviours are addictive, but most people who engage in them do not develop problems  If an individual becomes dependent and tolerance develops, it is likely to become a central problem in their life  There is not one single cause of addiction o The individual, environment and substance/behaviour combine o People who have difficulty dealing with stress or have a genetic predisposition may be more susceptible to addiction  Psychoactive – a blanket term to include drugs and other substances that alter someone’s consciousness o Drugs – chemicals other than food that are intended to affect the structure or function of the body  Example: prescription medicines (antibiotics and antidepressants), over-the- counter (OTC) substances (alcohol), and illegal substances (marijuana)  Pharmacy – art of compounding drugs  Pharmacology – science and study of drugs  Substance abuse involves one of the following: o Recurrent use, resulting in a failure to fulfill major responsibilities at work, school or home o Recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (such as before driving) o Recurrent substance-related legal problems o Continued use, despite persistent social or interpersonal problems caused by the effects of the substance o Physical dependence may or may not be present  Substance dependence involves 3 or more of the following during a 12 month period: o Developing tolerance to the substance o Experiencing withdrawal o Taking the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period of time than intended o Expressing a persistent desire to cut down on or regulate substance usage o Spending a great deal of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the substance effects o Giving up or decreasing important school, work or recreational activities due to the substance o Continuing to use the substance in spite of recognizing that it is contributing to a psychological or physical problem  Beneficial use – has positive health, spiritual or social impact  Casual/Non-problematic use – recreational, casual or other use that has negligible health or social effects  Problematic use – begins to have negative consequences for individual, friends/family or society  Chronic dependence – has become habitual and compulsive despite negative health and social effects  Factors that increase risk of using and abusing drugs: o Being male and young o Frequent exposure to drugs through family members/peers o Being disinterested in school and having a risk-taking personality o Poverty and easy access to drugs  Factors that decrease risk of using and abusing drugs: o Attending school regularly and getting good grades o Having a strong personal identity o Being religious and having a good relationship
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