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2012.03.27 - HSci 1001 Lecture Review Notes.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

HealthSci Lecture Review Notes Chapter 15  79.3% of Canadians reported alcohol consumption in the past year  44% reported drinking weekly  Males are more likely to report drinking in the past year than females  Highest drinking rate is among 18-24 year olds o 95% of university students consume alcohol  Alcohol is the leading cause of death among people ages 15-24 o Through car crashes and other injuries o Drinking and driving is the #1 criminal cause of death  Ethyl alcohol – most common psychoactive ingredient in alcohol beverages o Upon consumption, it is absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine, stomach and colon o 20% is quickly absorbed into the blood stream through the stomach, and then 75% is absorbed through the upper part of the small intestine  The rest is absorbed further down the gastrointestinal tract o It is then distributed throughout the bodily tissues, affecting nearly every bodily system o Main site of alcohol metabolism is the liver (transforms alcohol into energy and other products)  Body can metabolize about ½ - ¾ of a drink in 1 hour  2-10% of alcohol is not metabolized by liver – it is excreted by lungs, kidneys and sweat glands (the basis of breath and urine tests, but they are not accurate)  Metabolic rate not affected by exercise, deep breathing, eating, coffee, other drugs or sleep o If more alcohol is consumed than is metabolized, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) will steadily increase, along with the level of intoxication  One drink = 13.6grams of alcohol  BAC depends on: o Sex, weight, body fat, and water content in bodily tissues o Concentration of alcohol in beverage and volume of alcohol consumed o How quickly the beverage is consumed (rate of consumption) o Previous drinking history (chronic drinkers can drink more) o Artificial sweeteners and carbonation increase rate of absorption o Food in the stomach and highly concentrated alcohol decreases rate of absorption  Effects of chronic alcohol usage: o Average lifespan of alcohol abusers is 10-12 years shorter than others o Cirrhosis – liver cells are destroyed and replaced with fibrous scar tissue (fibrosis) o Inflammation of pancreas causing nausea, vomiting, abnormal digestion an
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