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Nutrition Terms Ch 5

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 5 Nutr i t ion Textbook Notes TERMS Nutr i t it: e science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease Essent ial Nutr iens ts:stances that body must get from foods because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs; include proteins, fats, carbs, vitamins, mineral and water Macronutr ienta :n essential nutrient required by the body in a very large amount Micronutr ien: an essential nutrient required by the body in a very small amount Digest iont:he process of breaking down foods in the gastrointestinal tract into compounds the body can absorb Ki localor ie:measure of energy content in food; one kilocalorie represents the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1L of water, by one degree celsius i.e calorie Legumes: vegetables, such as peas and beans, that are high in fibre and are also important sources of protein Hydrogenation:a process by which hydrogens are added to unsaturated fats, increasing the degree of satura- tion and turning liquid oils and solid fats. Hydrogenation produces a mixture of saturated fatty acids and stan- dard trans forms of unsaturated fatty acids Trans fatty acid ast:ype of unsaturated fatty acid produced during the process of hydrogenation; trans fats have an atypical shape that affects their chemical activity Cholesterola: waxy substance found in the blood and cells and needed for the synthesis of cell membranes, vi- tamin D and hormones. low densi ty l ipoprote blno:d fat that transports cholesterol to the organs and tissues, excess amounts result in the accumulation of deposits on artery walls high densi ty l ipoprote blno:d fat that transports cholesterol out of the artery, thereby protecting from heart disease omega-3 fatty acidP s:lyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish oils that are beneficial to CVD health carbohydrate:an essential nutrient: sugars, starches and dietary fibre whole graint:he entire edible portion of a grain, such as wheat, rice , oats consisting of the germ, endosperm and bran. During processing, parts of the grains are removed often leaving just the endosperm glycemic indexa: measure of how the ingestion o particular foods effects blood glucose levels dietary f ibrneo:n-digestible carbs and lignin that are intact in plants funct ional f ibind:igestible carbs wither isolated from natural sources/synthesized; may be added to foods and dietary supplements total f ibrte: total amount of dietary fibre and functional fibre in the diet soluble (viscous) fibre: dissolves in water or broken down by bacteria in the large intestine insoluble f ibd ro:s NOT dissolve in water and is not broken down by bacteria in the large intestine vitamins:carbon containing substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reac- tions and process in the body antioxidanc t:n lessen the
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