Whitehall Study (1967)
Study of 18,000 civil servants (male government workers) aged 35-55
- Administry type positions
- Similar working environments
- Focused on CVD
- The more senior you are in the employment hierarchy the longer you will live,
and the less likely you will die from CVD.
- Class 5 is the lowest level (unskilled labour)
- Class 1 is the highest level (manager)
- Lowest class had a mortality rates that was 3 times higher then that of the highest
- Mortality rates increased gradually as you went down through the different
- Also found an increase in morbidity, mortality, and risk of high risk behaviours
for the following: cancer, lung disease, depression, suicide, smoking, obesity, lower
levels of physical activity in employees of the lower grades.
- Even with high risk behaviours, the higher grades only had 2 times the risk of CVD.
Myths: 1. People in high executive positions have more heart attacks because of their
stress levels (not true)
2.Poor health is only for people in poverty, for people who are a disadvantage to
society. (not true)
Black Report (1980)
1977 – Sir Douglas Black commissioned by federal government (UK) to write
report investigating why NHS had failed to reduce inequalities in heal