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Health Sciences 1002A/B Lecture Notes - Canadian Mental Health Association, Outline Of Health Sciences, Tricyclic Antidepressant

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1002A/B
Shauna Burke

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Health science: personal determinants of health
Who definition of health (positive definition)
o “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity”
o resource for everyday life
o should be universal, not only for the disadvantaged
o ability to live fully with vitality (strong, active) and meaning
determined mainly by the decisions you make about how you live your
o dynamic process
health-related quality of life
o personal sense of physical and mental health
o in order to work, play and maintain satisfying relationships, one must reach a full
range of functional capacity
7 dimensions of wellness each dimension interacts and influences another
1) Physical
ex. healthy eating, exercise, getting regular check-ups
influences a) quality of life and b) life expectancy
2) Interpersonal/social wellness
having communication skills
having supportive networks
build relationships and intimacy
participating to outside world (community, country)
3) Mental/intellectual wellness
ability to process and use information
-includes being open to new ideas and thinking critically
4) Occupational wellness
personal satisfaction from career and it’s development
-includes work-life balance
5) Emotional wellness most closely related to feelings
to be happy (high optimism, self-esteem and self-control)
ability to share feelings
ability to find solutions to emotional problems
6) Environmental wellness
learning, protecting, and taking actions against environmental hazards
ex. pollution, violence
environmental health and personal health has a direct correlation
7) Spiritual wellness does not include JUST religion
having guiding beliefs or principles that give meaning and purpose to life
Allow individuals to have altruism, love, compassion, fulfillment etc.
infectious diseases
o communicable from one person to another
ex. tuberculosis, cold, HIV/AIDS, SARS

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o develop and become worse over time
o caused in part by life lifestyle factors (others are out of one’s control -> breast
o individuals have some control whether they develop chronic diseases
ex. cancer, heart disease, stroke
SMOKING is the leading preventable cause of death
o followed by inactivity and alcohol abuse
best way to reduce chronic diseases = PREVENTION
transition from infectious diseases to chronic diseases
o illness or disease
o death
early 1900s
o life expectancy = 59 (male) 61 (female)
o health threats = infectious diseases
spread through contamination of water and inability to clean it
growing trade between countries moved diseases around
the transition
o sources of infectious diseases discovered
easier to control spread of disease
emphasis on public health
o adoption of vaccinations and development of antibiotics
belief that modern medicine could cure any illness (today -> to a certain
today (2005 2007)
o life expectancy = 78 (male) 83 (female)
o health threats = chronic diseases
lifestyle influences the risk of an individual gaining a chronic disease
life expectancy in Canada
o among highest in the world
o West of Ontario have the highest life expectancy
life expectancy increases as
o unemployment decreases, levels of education increases, concentration of
immigrants increase etc.
pan-Canadian healthy living strategy
o goal = to decrease chronic diseases
o how to reach goal = address risk factors (lifestyle choices)
=societal conditions that increases risk
(Social, economic and environmental influences on lifestyle choices)
=use of population health approach
o emphasizes = healthy eating, physical activity, healthy weights
science versus health promotion
o science built upon theories -> “ifs”, “buts”, “maybes”
o scientific reliance of correlation between lifestyle and illness BUT it is NOT cause
and effect
o “health problems require action now” – Lalonde report

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How is wellness reached?
o examination of health behaviour
o Choose target behaviour (ex. decrease amount of cigarettes smoked per day
obtain accurate info about reaching target behaviour
find outside help
How are barriers overcome?
o form list of barriers
develop strategies to overcome them
health behaviours/goals students strive for
o Gain/lose weight, decrease stress levels, reduce alcohol consumption, develop
more friendships etc.
Why behaviour change is difficult (individuals must)
1) Know that behaviour is associated with a health problem
pure knowledge
2) Accept that the behaviour makes them susceptible to this health problem
“smoking will increase my risk for developing lung cancer”
3) Recognize that risk-reduction strategies exist that can decrease their risk for health
4) Belief that the benefits of newly adopted behaviours will be greater than the
benefits of the behaviours that are given up
5) Feel that significant others want them to alter their high-risk health behaviours
with any of the 5 factors above absent, the likelihood of ridding the harmful behaviour
becomes reduced
o belief in one’s ability to successfully perform a specific task
o ways to boost self-efficacy
develop internal locus of control
- belief that they have the ability to take responsibility to commit to
use imagery and self-talk
find role models
trans-theoretical model for behaviour change (Prochaska and DiClemente)
o studied individuals change long-standing problem behaviours
o all individuals moved through 6 predictable stages
important to determine what stage you are so that appropriate
strategies can be chosen
1) Precontemplation
no intention of changing behaviour
6 months before contemplation begins
2) Contemplation
intention to change behaviour
unsure of how to proceed
see themselves taking within the next 6 months
3) Preparation
plan to take action within a month
already started with small changes
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