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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Healthy Hearing

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2000A/B
Leichelle Little

LECTURE 2: HEALTHY HEARING Types of Hearing Loss • Vary based on onset o Congenital – HL occurs at birth  Prevalence: 1.1 per 1000 live births o Progressive – HL progresses over time  Prevalence: 5.3% of world’s population with some form of hearing loss, 33% of people age 65 and older have some form of hearing loss • Vary depending on where the issue arises in the auditory system o Conductive o Sensorineural • Also based on syndromic vs. non-syndromic Conductive VS. Sensorineural • Difference between conductive and sensorineural is where the issue arises • Prior to the cochlea – where conductive HL occurs (incus, malleus, ear canal) anywhere from the pinna to the stapes Syndromic VS. Non- Syndromic • If hearing loss is the only clinical feature, it is considered non- syndromic HL • Example: Alport Syndrome – some symptoms include: o Abnormal urine color o Ankle, feet, and leg swelling o Decreased or loss of vision o Loss of hearing Central Auditory Processing Disorder • Normal Hearing Thresholds • Difficulty processing sound – challenge in surroundings with noise • Affects approximately 5% of school-aged children • Hearing “loss” vs. Hearing “impairment” • Impairment – can sense it normally, but impaired in processing sound Causes of Hearing Loss • Heredity – estimated that over 50% of HL is due to genetic factors • Noise and heredity are the two major causes • Some of these factors can be linked • Heredity can make you more susceptible to noise-induced HL or age-induced HL • Hereditary hearing loss o Genotype + Environment = Phenotype o Genetic mutation + Noisy environment = Hearing loss o Genotype interacts with environment, and based on that, we obtain some sort of phenotype How does Noise Damage Hearing? • When sound comes in, it travels and vibrates off the eardrum • In the cochlea, air conduction
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