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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 Readings - Health Behaviour Change

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2000A/B
Leichelle Little

LECTURE 5 READINGS: HEALTH BEHAVIOR CHANGE AND RISK MOTIVATION Models of Health Behavior The Health Belief Model (HBM) • According to HBM, the likelihood that someone will take action to prevent illness depends upon the individual’s perception that: o They are personally vulnerable to that condition o The consequences of the condition would be serious o The precautionary behavior effectively prevents the condition o The benefits of reducing the threat of the condition exceed the costs of taking action • The model’s four key components include: 1. Susceptibility 2. Severity 3. Effectiveness 4. Cost • Perceived susceptibility – probability that an individual assigns to personal vulnerability in developing the condition o Predictive of numerous health-protective behaviors o Likelihood that individuals will engage in precautionary behaviors depends on how much they believe they are vulnerable to or at risk for cancer • Perceived severity – how serious the individual believes the consequences of developing the condition are o More likely to take action if he/she believes that possible negative physical, psychological, and/or social effects resulting from developing the disease pose serious consequences • Combination of perceived susceptibility and perceived severity constitute a health threat • Perceived effectiveness – benefits of engaging in the protective behavior o Motivation to take action to change a behavior requires the belief that the precautionary behavior effectively prevents the condition • Perceived cost – barriers or losses that interfere with health behavior change o Taking action involved cognitively weighing the personal costs associated with the behavior against the benefits expected as a result of engaging in the behavior • Combination of perceived effectiveness and perceive cost constitute the notion of outcome expectation • Cues to action – stimuli that motivate an individual to engage in the health behavior o Stimulus may be internal (i.e., angina) or external (i.e., death of a parent) • Self-efficacy – influenced by mediating variables and in turn influences expectations • Mediating factors – demographic, structural and social variables o Indirectly affect behavior by influencing an individual’s perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits and barriers The Theory of Reasoned Action / Planned Behavior (TRA) • Social-psychological approach to understanding and predicting determinants of health-behavior • TRA states that the intention to perform a particular behavior is strongly related to the actual performance of that behavior • Two basic assumptions that underlie the TRA are: 1. Behavior is under volitional (using one’s will) control 2. People are rational beings • Designed to predict behavior from intention, and proposes relationships between beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behavior • According to the TRA, behavior is influenced by the intention to perform the behavior which is influenced by three major variables: o Subjective norms – involve an individual’s perception of what significant others believe about his/her ability to perform the behavior o Attitudes – conceptualized in terms of values, an individual develops particular values about behavior o Self-efficacy – confidence an individual feels that he/she can successfully perform the behavior of eating a healthy diet • Two types of beliefs – normative and behavioral beliefs • Likelihood that an individual will engage in health risk behavior depends upon how much he/she is convinced that healthy behaviors will prevent risk, and he degree to which he/she perceives the benefits will outweigh the costs Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) • Most comprehensive model of human behavior • Represents clinical approach to health behavior change • Widely applied to health behavior with respect to prevention, health promotion, and modification of unhealthy lifestyles for many different risk behaviors • SCT emphasizes what people think and its effect on their behavior • Proposes that behavior can be explained in terms of triadic reciprocity between three key concepts which operate as determinants of each other • Reciprocal determinism forms the basic organizing principle of SCT – states that there is a continuous, dynamic interaction between the individual, the environment and behavior • Conceptualized influences on behavior that involved the concept of person in terms of basic human capacities that are cognitive in nature o Personal characteristics – multiple, interacting determinants such as demographics, personality, cognitive factors, motivation and skills o Emotional arousal/coping – individual’s ability to respond to emotional stimuli with various techniques, strategies, and activities that help one to deal with arousing situations o Behavioral capacity – individual’s possession of both the knowledge and skills necessary to perform a behavior o Self-efficacy – individual’s confidence in his/her ability to perform a behavior in various situations
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