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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 - Nutrition and Health

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2000A/B
Leichelle Little

LECTURE 6: NUTRITION AND HEALTH Being a Registered Dietician • 4-year undergraduate degree • 1-year dietetic internship or combined master’s degree and internship • National exam • Registration to provincial regulatory body o Regulated title, specific code of conduct o Evidence-based practice o Protect the public • Further education to specialize New Brazilian Eating Guidelines • Prepare meals from staple and fresh foods • Use oils, fats, sugar and salt in moderation • Limit consumption of ready-to-consume food and drink products • Eat regular meals, paying attention, and in appropriate environments • Eat in company whenever possible • Buy food at places that offer varieties of fresh foods. Avoid those that mainly sell products ready for consumption • Develop, practice, share and enjoy your skills in food preparation and cooking • Plan your time to give meals and eating proper time and space • When you eat out, choose restaurants that serve freshly made dishes and meals. Avoid fast food chains • Be critical of the commercial advertisement of food products Importance of Cooking Skills • Important to know where food comes from • Able to control what goes into your food • More time in the kitchen = less time sitting • Makes us aware/think of what we’re eating • Cooking skills does not necessarily mean healthy eating Back to Basics: Energy Needs • Important to consume the right amount of calories o Stable weight = likely consuming proper amount of calories • Important to consume right proportions of macronutrients: o Carbohydrates: 45-65% of calories  Added sugars < 25%  Fiber 25 g (women), 38 g (men) o Proteins: 10-35% of calories o Fats: 20-35% of calories  <10% saturated and trans fats • Important to eat a variety of foods everyday: o Vegetables and fruit o Grain products o Milk and alternatives o Meat and alternatives o Ideal plate: 50% vegetables, 25% grain products, 25% meat and alternatives (and water) Food Labels • Nutrition facts table o Amount of food o Choose less: sugar, fat, sodium o Choose more: fiber, vitamins and minerals, protein • 5% is a little, 15% is a lot What About Nuts? • Research suggests nuts have many health benefits • Limited impact on body weight o High satiety effect o Reduction in dietary compensation • Very energy-dense (aim for 30-50 g or a small handful per day) o 20 almonds, 15 cashews, 10 whole walnuts Food as Fuel • Energy in calories • Calories: o Carbohydrate (4 kcal/g) o Protein (4 kcal/g) o Fat (9 kcal/g) o Known as macronutrients • Energy out: o Resting energy expenditure o Physical activity o Thermogenic effect of foods Substrate Oxidation • In healthy individuals, metabolism adapts quickly to oxidize fats and carbohydrates for energy • Respiratory exchange ration (ratio of2CO produced to2O consumed) o 1.0 = 100% carbohydrate o 0.7 = 100%
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