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Health Promo 2250

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2200A/B
Bill Irwin

Health Promotion 2050a 9/13/2013 9:02:00 PM Welcome Lecture: ... “better control of behaviour risk factors alone could prevent between 40-70% of ALL premature deaths 1/3 of ALL acute disabilities 2/3 of ALL chronic disabilities Introduction to HE, DP, and HP - Health promotion roots health education, health education is still a part of health promotion-> They have differences that make them unique and thus, not the same as each other Health Promotion: - health is very positive and multidimensional - participatory - aimed at the entire population and environment - concerns a network of issues - Many strategies - facilitation and enabling approaches - changes the person and the environment - non-professional organizations, civic groups, local, municipal, regional and national governments necessary for achieving the goal of HP Disease Prevention: - health is just the absence of disease - biomedical model - aimed at high-risk groups (not the entire population) - concerned about one problem (“one bug, one drug”)-> one shot strategy - directive and persuasive strategies - focused on the individuals issue, not lifestyle changes afterword’s - preventive programs considered the affairs of professional groups from health disciplines ** NEED both-> danger when trying to use only one when not applicable Health Education-> is a planned learning experience to facilitate voluntary change in behaviour: NO ONE IS FORCING YOU! Concerned with-> “health directed behavior” for disease prevention or further disease prevention Health Education Program: Ex. Flu shots, meningitis shot, HPV etc. -> They are voluntary -> Borrow from the best (health education plays a huge roll) -> health promotion uses MANY SECTORS Some examples: school health, public health, population health and managed care, disease and injury prevention, occupational health, environmental health, medical and other clinical health services, personal hygiene etc. Health Promotion Concerned with-> moving beyond health institutions to focus on THE PERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH -Focuses on whole person to enhance health using the personal determinants of health - HP draws on the components of life that relate to the health of the population Health institutions-> Must look at sectors other than health institutions to promote health ** Institutions don’t promote health- you don’t go to a health institution when your healthy. Health institutions focus on sick->healthy while HP focuses on normal->healthy The need of HP from HE to target lifestyle - Health education has been successful when promoting immunization, but doesn’t promote lifestyle changes ** Sectors need to come together to influence health of the population - heath educators became aware of the need for positivity in health education ex. “Don’t have sex!!” -> Need discussion on why and when etc. - self-evident that health education could only develop its full potential if supported by structural measures (all sectors working together) Behavior you can’t stand Ex. Smoking-> Yelling, talking about consequences (they already know) - need to let them know why they want to quit-> they have to want to Health Promotion and LIFESTYLE Lifestyle-> an enduring pattern of behavior or socialization (everyone has a lifestyle) - focuses on determinants of health, rather than measuring and explaining disease at submolecular (high tech) units AKA Instead of pinpointing bad health to one thing HP uses a variety methods (determinants of health) to promote health Moving away from submolecular level: - Reducing ill health to submolecular levels has been great for medicine BUT at the expense of neglecting the whole person - In the medical field they neglect social, cultural and behavioral aspects of care and focus on high tech treatments ** Health promotion suffers in clinical setting The Determinants of Health -> Factors and influences that shape the health of individuals and communities - Seek to explain why health status is what it is - Looks at health (or lack of) as a product of an equation - Various factors come together to determine health - Health promotion uses the personal determinants of health to enhance health and focuses on the whole person The Determinants of Health: Specific information on each determinant: - Each factor that influences health is important in its own right. At the same time, the factors are inter-related. The combined influences of these factors together determine health status Income and Health: Income is one of the most important determinants of health. Studies show that health improves at each step up the income and social ladder The richer= healthier Why?-> purchase adequate housing, food and other basic needs - make more choices and feel more in control over decisions in life ** The feeling of control is basic to good health These studies show that health is a function of both the absolute average income of a country (GNP per capita) and its income distribution (the degree to which income is equitably distributed among different socioeconomic groups). AKA This study shows that health is dependent of how much someone makes and how it is distributed among different socioeconomic groups Social status refers to a person's rank or social position in relation to others -their relative importance. Higher socio-economic status, however measured (often by income, but also by education or occupation), correlates positively with good health. ** If you feel higher you have a higher economic status you feel healthier How does social status affect health? - Determines the degree of control people have other their life circumstances-> If affects their capacity to act and make choices for themselves (when people feel like they have no control they feel as if others make choices for them Social Support Network: having a family or friends available in times of need - believing that one is valued as a provider od support when others are in need - Support from families, friends and communities is associated with better health. The importance of effective responses to stress and having the support of family and friends provides a caring and supportive relationship that seems to act as a buffer. Social support networks can affect: - psychological (emotional) health - physical health - health perceptions (how healthy one feels) - how individuals and families manage disease and illness Education On average, people with higher levels of education are likely to: - be employed - have jobs with higher social status - have stable incomes How are higher education and health related? -increases financial security -increases job security and satisfaction. -Equips people with the skills they need to identify and solve individual and group problems -increases the choices and opportunities available to people -Improves “health literacy” - the ability to gain access to information and services that may keep ourselves and our families healthy. -can unlock the innate creativity and innovation in people, and add to our collective ability to generate wealth On average, as education increases, self rated health status improves Only 18% of respondents with grade school rated their health as “excellent” compared with 38% of university graduates. One way to measure well-being is to ask people to rate their own health. This self-rated health status summarizes physical and mental health as experienced by the individual, according to their own values. Employment and Working Conditions - Unemployment and underemployment are associated with poorer health Healthier if and live longer if: (1) Feel like they have more control over their work circumstances (2) Fewer stress-related demands on the - Workplace hazards and injuries are significant causes of health problems -People who have been unemployed die earlier, higher rates of suicide and heart disease -Spouses of unemployed people have higher emotional problems, Teens/ children of unemployed parents are at higher risk of emotional/behavioral problems ** Recovery of physical and mental health after unemployment is neither immediate nor complete Social Environments norms of a society influence the health and well-being of individuals and populations in varying ways. Social stability, recognition of diversity, safety, good working relationships, and cohesive communities provide a supportive society that reduces or avoids many potential risks to good health. Studies have shown that low availability of emotional support and low social participation have a negative impact on health and well-being Physical Environment Natural: Air, water, and land -> Having access to clean resources and being able to avoid toxins and pollutions Built: Housing, workplace safety, community safety, transportation, road design, telephones and communication ** The challenge is to maintain a thriving economy while preserving the integrity of the environment and the availability of resources. Gender - Gender is linked more to the roles, power, and influence society gives to men and women NOT actually the biological influence Women, for example, are more vulnerable to gender-based sexual or physical violence, low income, lone parenthood, gender based causes of exposure to health risks and threats (eg. Accidents, STD’s, suicide, smoking, substance abuse, prescription drugs, physical inactivity). - Most of the research on health and health care is based on studies of men **Measures to address gender inequality and gender bias within and beyond the health system will improve population health. Culture and Ethnicity - Influences how people link with the health system, their access to health information and their lifestyle choices Ex. influences participation in programs of prevention and health promotion, access to health information, health related lifestyle choices and their understanding of health and illness “Dominant” cultural (refers to the established language, religion, behavior, values, rituals, and social customs values) largely determine the social and economic environment of communities **Basically there is a dominant culture in Canada and people who are not part of the dominant culture face greater health risks The Result-> some people face greater health risks due to: (1) Marginalization- The process of a group being left out politically, socially, and economically (2) Loss/ devaluation of culture and language (3) Lack of access to culturally appropriate health services Personal Health Practices and Coping Skills Personal health practices-> individual decisions people make that affect their health directly, examples: smoking, food choices, physical activity etc. Coping Skills->Ways people deal with the situation or problem: internal resources people have to handle outside influences and pressures - Prevent disease - Increase self-reliance (ability to recover from illness) - Handle outside influences and stresses Healthy Child Development - The effect of prenatal and early childhood experiences on subsequent coping skills, competence and future well-being is very powerful Children born in low-income families are more likely to have: - low birth weights - eat less nutritious foods - difficulties with health and social problems throughout their lives The 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) indicates that rates of family dysfunction and parental depression are higher in poor families than in more affluent families, and that poor children do not have the same scholastic and verbal skills entering school as their non- impoverished peers Health Services - move towards “broader resources” to support well-being The design: services to maintain and promote health, to prevent disease, and to restore health and function contribute to population health Health Promotion-> Process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health Ex. show how to cook instead of doing it for them “the combination of educational and ecological supports of actions and conditions conductive to health - enhance awareness, change behaviour, and create environments that support good health practices - broader term than health education educational- ecological- - health is a positive concept; a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living - Its about making the healthier choice - change lifestyle to move to optimal level of health Focuses on: (1) Advocacy- conditions of health favourable through advocacy (public support) for health as a resource (2) Enabling- focuses on ac
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