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LEC 2 Basic Cells &Tissues.pdf

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Jamie Melling

LEC 2: Basic Cells &Tissues September-07-12 SEPT 11 12:12 PM • Exam Oct 23, NS-145, Bellringer Dec 4th • HenryGray, 1858 publishedGray'sAnatomy • Dissected human body and reported on it, illustrationswe still use today • "Anatomy": Dissection, "Gross": see with your eyes • Tissues look the way they do becauseof the cells that comprise them • With the cells we build tissue, pancreas best organ in the body • Systemic approach to functionalanatomy- understanding function of the body • Regional approach- actually participatingin dissection, take a region of the bodyand you look at all of the structures in that region • 11 systems in the body you would look at in a region during regional anatomy • Lots of regions and structuresin the neck and eye • Systems approach (this course) - identify just the system by itself and all the structuresinside it( preferred way to teach anatomy) • Study a cadaveryou cannot do systems, b/c you cant removeall of the muscles to look at the bones then place it back • Challengewith systematicanatomyis understanding that these systems are all integrated they are not separate, cardiovascular works with a skeleton • • Multiple namesfor one structure • Importantto be consistentwith names • Always reference back to the anatomicalposition to provideclear and consistent communication regarding the bodyfrom one person to the next • Anterior- morefrontal Posterior- towardsthe back Lectures Page 1 • Anterior- morefrontal Posterior- towardsthe back • Always refer to the patientfirst, its on "their" right side, not your own • Not right and left rather medial:closer to centerlineof the body and lateral • Nose lies right on the midline , much more medialthan the shoulder which is off the midline , more lateral • Proximaland distal confused with medialand lateral • Proximaland distal refer to closeness to the axial skeleton (bones that make up the core of the body ) armsand legs are appendagesoff of core of the body • Elbow is more proximal to the core of the body than the hand,hand is more distal • Superior - higher up on the body, inferior- lower on the body • When you look at a structure your looking at a regional structureof the body • Frontal plane "coronal" - imaginary planethat separates the body itself into anterior and posterior positions • Often when looking at the brain a sagittal view is used (left and right half) • Sagittal plane lies on midline of the body,sometimes it is called the "mid sagittal plane" • Anything off of the mid sagittal plane is called the parasagittal plane (shoulder) para meaning the side • Transverse planeor the "horizontal plane", parallelto the ground and it will dissect the portionof the bodyinto superiorand inferior positions • Third is an image of the brain in a mid sagittal position • Coronalfrontal plane that separatesinto anterior and posteriorpositions • Sagittal, from left to right side Lectures Page 2 • Sagittal, from left to right side • Horizontal plane • Arm is referred to as entire upper extremity • Arm is elbow to shoulder, forearmis elbow to wrist • Not but or buttocks its called the gluteal region • The arm in anatomyis called the brachial - elbow to the shoulder • Elbow to the wrist is called anti- brachial • Cranial region is the top of the skull, facial region is the face • Cervicalregion is the neck • Sacralregion in-between the gluteal region • Many bonesand muscles ,nerves and vessels originatefrom these regions • Gluteal region has manymuscles all referencing this region • Challengewith regions is that they are not properlybordered -generalized region • Body cavities are easier to identify becausethey are enclosed spaces Lectures Page 3 • Body cavities are easier to identify becausethey are enclosed spaces • Enclosed spaces help to protect vital organs,two main ones dorsalcavity and ventral cavity • Dorsal is towards the back , ventral is towardsthe front • Within the dorsal cavity is the craveal cavity in an enclosed space with the brain and a vertebral cavity and encloses the spinal cord- these cavities are very separate compared to in the ventralcavity, includes a thoracic space - both lungs and all the major organs that lie between the two lungs • Center between left and right pluralcavities with the lungs is the mediastinum, trachea that brings air into the lungs • Pericardialcavity - includes the heart • Cavities are enclosed by a protective membranethat allows structureswithin it to glide across,mucus inside that reduces friction • Lining is a mucus membrane and an active membrane, protectsorganswithin cavities • Compartments(in muscles) are enclosed spaces that are not lined with membranesbut rather fascia, bundles muscles together and we use these compartmentsto identify structureswithin it • Thigh- three muscularcompartments • Calf region of lower leg • 600 muscles in the body atm • Shareblood supply and innervation • Compartmentshave specific vascular supplyand innervation • What makes up body • Organized through 6 differentlevels from cells - organisms • Cells are made up of macromolecules which are very large molecules( DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids), atoms make up macromolecules • When molecules come together they form cells - 200 diff cells in body • The next level off of cells is tissues Lectures Page 4 • Know these organelles-imp in identifying unique functions of a particular cell • Muscles are differentcolours - red and white muscles, comes down to components and organellesthat make up those muscles • 200 differentcells form 4 differenttissues • Nervoustissue made up of nervouscells , epithelial tissue , connective tissue (most diverseand abundant)and muscular tissue • Tissues comes from a similar embryonicorigin, all of cells within a tissue share a common function • Tissues combine to form organs • Each organ has to have at least 2 tissues- what classifies an organ as an organ • All organs have all four tissues truly • Vascularto an organ, has to breathea by-product will by CO2, vascular supply • Systems level are made up of multiple organs (11 diff) • Digestive system is the slide, contains liver, stomach, gallbladder.. • Systems all work together to form an organism • Functional term regardingepithelia is that it’s a covering tissue (mostly correct), covers organs systems and cavities of the body • To classify with just this function does no justice • Classify epithelia based on how its layered and how its shaped • Cells are uniquein ordering/structure • Layers ○ Simple meansone layer adjacent to one another ○ Stratified is wheretheir lined or stacked on top each other ○ Pseudo stratified- epithelial tissues in unique parts of the body, looks stratified but are still single cells, only located in specific area of the body • Shape ○ Squamous- "squashed" , term doesn’t name squishedit meansscale-like, if you have manyof these thin cells with a nucleus on top together it looks scale like • Simple layersare functionallymeant for diffusion. EX: gases, in orderfor O2 to leave lungs to blood it must pass through a simple layer of cells • Stratified are often meant for barriersto control what moves through,stack epithelial cells makes it hard for tissues to move through them • Squamous allows for the most diffusion,columnar stills allows it but is more difficult • Columnarand cuboidal are better known for absorption and secretion • Simple squamouslayer is seen in blood vessels, epithelia has to control the amount of gas exchangethrough different environments or acrossan organ itself Lectures Page 5 cells makes it hard for tissues to move through them • Squamous allows for the most diffusion,columnar stills allows it but is more difficult • Columnarand cuboidal are better known for absorption and secretion • Simple squamouslayer is seen in blood vessels, epithelia has to control the amount of gas exchangethrough different environments or acrossan organ itself • Stratified squamousin the skin, no better place for a barrier to exist, control what moves from out-insidethe body • Simple cuboidal is seen in tubulesof the kidney- involved in absorptionand secretion whereasstratified cuboidal is seen in the esophagus tube moving to stomachsuffers extremes conditions(heartburn) • Simple columnar are seen in the intestine- mucus secretion so food can move around and absorption,stratified columnar is in the throatan area exposed to harsh conditions • Cells are unique,closely joined together • Nothingmoves through the gaps within them, so that they can opposetoxins into body • A covering tissue- true we see epithelia covering what entersglands • Epithelia - "cover ep" or "glandular ep" • All glands are made up mostly of epithelia but are not covering anything but making up a bulk of the gland- glandular epithelia • Epithelia that LINES an organ is called covering epithelia • Innervated,receive innervation from nervous system to stimulatereleaseof hormonescreated,epithelia is avascular (does NOT havevascular supply" • Pic- simple columnar,receivea nervousinnervation,but vascular supplyin inferior and doesn’t connect to the cell • Highwayof body (vasculature) once something enters it can reachanywherein the body • Don’t want vascular t
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