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Lecture

Health Sciences 2300A/B Lecture Notes - Mandibular Fossa, Hyaline Cartilage, Synovial Joint


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 2300A/B
Professor
Jamie Melling

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Lots of moving parts
Articulations - joints
Body has lots of moving parts must last a lifetime but there's impairments of joints
Majority of people suffer from hip issues
Synarthroses- immovable , sutures of the skull
Joint- a joining of two bones that are movable all except those in the cranium
Classify joints by function and structurally
Amphiarthroses
EX: Knee or shoulder
Diarthroses
Localized these to axial skeleton or appendicular skeleton
New look at joints and functions
No joint cavity, no hyaline (would reduce friction)
Typically non-moving joint
Ligaments- fibrous joints- dense tissue connecting bones
Fibrous Joints
Holds upper bones together
Annular ligament links radius and ulna
Sydesmoses
Small socket joints lie in it.
EX: tooth cell
Gomphoses
Interosseus membrane
LEC 5: Articulations
September-07-12
7:24 PM
Lectures Page 1

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Broad ligament only
Exists b/w the ulna and radius
Interosseus membrane
Wherever movement hyaline cartilage
Cartilaginous has no movement
Cartilaginous Joints
May not directly attach bones together
Rib/sternum hyaline cartilage
Hyaline cartilage present means there is NO articulating in synchondroses
All will have hyaline cartilage present
Growth plates- plates of hyaline cartilage where bones grow
Head/shaft of humerus there is NO growing
Cartilaginous joints, hyaline present on surface of body
Fibrous more familiar than hyaline
Symphyses
Give you difficulty as you get old b/c they're movable
Cavity surrounding articular surface of bones
Synovial Joints
Some features present in some but not others
Hyaline/ "articular cartilage"
Creates "joint cavity" space "synovial cavity" is lubricator fluid and comfort
reduces friction across 2 bones
Creates cavity (closed means no fluid), nourishing
EX: Synovial Joint
Comes from filtrate or blood
Concentration of glycoprotein (fluid with lots is lubricated)
Synovial fluid= egg white
Articulates into capsule synovial fluid leaks
Fibres running in different directions (articular capsule)
Inside capsule- "synovial membrane", epithelial cell layer, controls passage of fluid
from blood to synovial space
Vessels that don’t penetrate into synovial cavity
Lubricates and carry's nourishing substance
Lining tissue is lots of vessels, only certain substances pass into synovial joint
Can exist outside capsule extracapsular ligaments or can exists inside
capsule extracapsular ligaments (inside- MCL, knee) help support
Ligementum across joints
Dispersed throughout capsule
Nerve dispersed throughout to all certain agents to enter cavity created
Lectures Page 2

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3 classification based on function of a joint- very, kind of not movable at all - old
concept
Structural classification- what makes up a joint
Synovial joint is separated from others with a capsule (otherwise fibrous, cartilage)
Different movements across synovial joint- 6 types
Hinged- b/w humerus and ulna - cylindrical object in trough object, uniaxial ,
ulna and humerus is simply a flexion and extension movement
Pivot- b/w radius and ulna fixed into each other, ring in which head of
radius fits into on ulna, cylindrical object in a ring including angular
ligament , radius twists along long axis of the bone (articulation c2-c1),
uniaxial joint, only move on one axis twisting movement
Plane Joint- two flat surfaces articulating together, slightly shaped,
movement is unrestricted, multiaxial joint (text calls them biaxial b/c in
carpal and tarsal you don’t have twisting of carpals or tarsals move biaxially
b/c ligaments don’t allow to twist)
Condyloid- oval end to bone fitting into oval depression , side-side & for-
backwards movement, no twisting - biaxial joint (proximal phalanx /
metacarpal)
Ball-Socket- rounded end fitting into cup impression, move
forward/backwards/twist along bone- multiaxial joint, interaction b/w bones
not restricted (shoulder, hip joint), ligaments allow twisting
Saddle- concave structure fitting into another- two axes in which joint can
move, carpal and metacarpal- biaxial joint
Movement across one axis of joint uniaxial.. Biaxial, multiaxial…
Can exist outside capsule extracapsular ligaments or can exists inside
capsule extracapsular ligaments (inside- MCL, knee) help support
Ligementum across joints
Dispersed throughout capsule
Nerve dispersed throughout to all certain agents to enter cavity created
Tells us where joint is, so when its out stimulates muscles to re-align joint
Brain, nervous system and ability to sense body
Brain is not receiving constant awareness of where joint is and therefore cannot
correct it b/c nerves are used are out
Stand up femur puts pressure on tibia, all ligaments compressed and like a
sponge synovial fluid leaks out and lubricates decreasing friction across
bones, if NONE it rejuvenating - "weeping lubrication"
How can agent be nourishing/lubricating )synovial fluid)
Not between bones
Synovial joints different than bemuse and tendon sheaths
Skin gliding across patella- bursa to decrease friction (not between 2 bones)
Tendon sheath- bursa wrapped around tendon
Similar fluid to decrease friction
Tendon- looks like a pig in a blanket
Lectures Page 3
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