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LEC 5 Articulations.pdf

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Jamie Melling

LEC 5: Articulations September-07-12 7:24 PM • Lots of moving parts • Articulations - joints • Body has lots of moving parts must last a lifetime but there's impairments of joints • Majority of people suffer from hip issues • Synarthroses- immovable , sutures of the skull • Joint- a joining of two bones that are movable all except those in the cranium • Classify joints by function and structurally • Amphiarthroses ○ EX: b/w manubrium, and body of sternum, "sternal angle" slight movement of this joint • Diarthroses ○ EX: Knee or shoulder • Localized these to axial skeleton or appendicular skeleton • New look at joints and functions • Fibrous Joints ○ No joint cavity, no hyaline (would reduce friction) ○ Typically non-moving joint ○ Ligaments- fibrous joints- dense tissue connecting bones • Sydesmoses ○ Holds upper bones together ○ Annular ligament links radius and ulna • Gomphoses ○ Small socket joints lie in it. ○ EX: tooth cell • Interosseus membrane Lectures Page 1 • Interosseus membrane ○ Broad ligament only ○ Exists b/w the ulna and radius • Cartilaginous Joints ○ Wherever movement hyaline cartilage ○ Cartilaginous has no movement • All will have hyaline cartilage present ○ May not directly attach bones together ○ Rib/sternum hyaline cartilage ○ Hyaline cartilage present means there is NO articulating in synchondroses • Growth plates- plates of hyaline cartilage where bones grow • Head/shaft of humerus there is NO growing • Symphyses ○ Cartilaginous joints, hyaline present on surface of body ○ Fibrous more familiar than hyaline • Synovial Joints ○ Give you difficulty as you get old b/c they're movable ○ Cavity surrounding articular surface of bones • EX: Synovial Joint ○ Some features present in some but not others Hyaline/ "articular cartilage" ○ ○ Creates "joint cavity" space "synovial cavity" is lubricator fluid and comfort reduces friction across 2 bones ○ Creates cavity (closed means no fluid), nourishing • Synovial fluid= egg white ○ Comes from filtrate or blood ○ Concentration of glycoprotein (fluid with lots is lubricated) • Fibres running in different directions (articular capsule) ○ Articulates into capsule synovial fluid leaks • Inside capsule- "synovial membrane", epithelial cell layer, controls passage of fluid from blood to synovial space • Lining tissue is lots of vessels, only certain substances pass into synovial joint ○ Vessels that don’t penetrate into synovial cavity ○ Lubricates and carry's nourishing substance • Ligementum across joints ○ Can exist outside capsule extracapsular ligaments or can exists inside capsule extracapsular ligaments (inside- MCL, knee) help support • Nerve dispersed throughout to all certain agents to enter cavity created ○ Dispersed throughout capsule Lectures Page 2 • Ligementum across joints ○ Can exist outside capsule extracapsular ligaments or can exists inside capsule extracapsular ligaments (inside- MCL, knee) help support • Nerve dispersed throughout to all certain agents to enter cavity created ○ Dispersed throughout capsule • Brain, nervous system and ability to sense body ○ Tells us where joint is, so when its out stimulates muscles to re-align joint • Brain is not receiving constant awareness of where joint is and therefore cannot correct it b/c nerves are used are out • How can agent be nourishing/lubricating )synovial fluid) ○ Stand up femur puts pressure on tibia, all ligaments compressed and like a sponge synovial fluid leaks out and lubricates decreasing friction across bones, if NONE it rejuvenating - "weeping lubrication" • Synovial joints different than bemuse and tendon sheaths ○ Not between bones • Skin gliding across patella- bursa to decrease friction (not between 2 bones) • Tendon sheath- bursa wrapped around tendon • Similar fluid to decrease friction • Tendon- looks like a pig in a blanket • 3 classification based on function of a joint- very, kind of not movable at all - old concept • Structural classification- what makes up a joint • Synovial joint is separated from others with a capsule (otherwise fibrous, cartilage) • Different movements across synovial joint- 6 types • Movement across one axis of joint uniaxial.. Biaxial, multiaxial… ○ Hinged- b/w humerus and ulna - cylindrical object in trough object, uniaxial , ulna and humerus is simply a flexion and extension movement ○ Pivot- b/w radius and ulna fixed into each other, ring in which head of radius fits into on ulna, cylindrical object in a ring including angular ligament , radius twists along long axis of the bone (articulation c2-c1), uniaxial joint, only move on one axis twisting movement ○ Plane Joint- two flat surfaces articulating together, slightly shaped, movement is unrestricted, multiaxial joint (text calls them biaxial b/c in carpal and tarsal you don’t have twisting of carpals or tarsals move biaxially b/c ligaments don’t allow to twist) ○ Condyloid- oval end to bone fitting into oval depression , side-side & for- backwards movement, no twisting - biaxial joint (proximal phalanx / metacarpal) ○ Ball-Socket- rounded end fitting into cup impression, move forward/backwards/twist along bone- multiaxial joint, interaction b/w bones not restricted (shoulder, hip joint), ligaments allow twisting ○ Saddle- concave structure fitting into another- two axes in which joint can move, carpal and metacarpal- biaxial joint Lectures Page 3 • Joints often injured • TMJ- hinged like joint, lots of movement across the joint in the jaw Temporal Mandibular Joint → know structures • Coronoid process- crown like stricture attachment point for large muscle that controls closing the jaw, does not articulate TMJ • Temporalis muscle attaches to coronoid process- what you see when you chew Mandibular fossa gum • Articular capsule- synovial joint - if you remove capsule to see inside there is an Articular tubule articular disc to reduce frictional forces and reduces compressional forces so condular process does not go through fossa and damage brain tissue • Mandibular fossa is very thin and trough like to allow for motion, above lies temporal lobe of brain Ligaments • Lateral Temporomandibular Ligament ,Stylomandibular Ligament • Sphenomandibular Ligament - go underneath skull to find ligament to inner mandible, transparent so you can appreciate its on inner side of mandible running towards sphenoid bone • When mouth is closed better chance to withstand movement across these structures - mouth guard keeps mouth closed, so force to chin is distributed across condular and coronoid process ○ If jaw is open force across chin will move across mandibular fossa - we have Coronoid process protective means to withstand when move is open - jaw shifts forward to articular fossa (thickening of tubule) much less likelihood of bone breaking through Condular process Worse position is slightly opened jaw , mouth guards make us close our ○ • Joint allows for forward/backward movement of jaw with respect to temporal- protraction and retraction • Protraction, retraction not associated with this joint • Jaw moves forward as a protective mechanism, due to thin mandibular fossa and brain above, possibility of damaging tissues above would be severe • Ball-Socket joint • Lots of ligaments but only one actually supports the shoulder joint, others are associate, helping with the joint but not actually supporting it • Only one dedicated ligament - coracal • Joint supported from muscles, one being biceps • Muscles around joint on left are rotator cuff muscles allow you to medially and laterally rotate shoulder joint, "cuff" also help to support • Labrum- meaning "lips", simply cartilage and can easily tear, helps support but not Lectures Page 4 • Only one dedicated ligament - coracal • Joint supported from muscles, one being biceps • Muscles around joint on left are rotator cuff muscles allow
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