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Lecture 5

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Jamie Melling

Lecture  5:  Joints     • A  joint  is  the  articulation  between  two  bones  or  between  bone  and  cartilage.   • Our  bodies  encounter  considerable  wear  and  tear  through  our  everyday  movements  and   thus  we  need  to  have  functional  joints.     • The  study  of  joints  is  arthrology.   • There  are  two  ways  to  classify  joints.  You  can  classify  them  functionally  or  structurally.  The   professor  prefers  structurally.     Functional  Classification:   1. Synarthroses  –  Immovable  joint.  Do  not  move  for  protection,  for  example  skull  bones  are   put  together  by  sutures,  which  are  synarthorses  joints.   2. Amphiathroses  –  Slightly  moveable.  These  joints  are  restricted  but  do  move  a  bit.  An   example  ribs  and  sternum.   3. Diarthosis  –  Freely  movable.  They  come  in  a  variety  of  shapes  and  permit  several  types  of   movements.  Examples  are  shoulder,  knee,  ankle,  and  hit  joints.       Structural  Classification:   1. Fibrous  –  Formed  by  a  solid  mass  of  connective  tissue  between  neighboring  bones.   • Tight,  no  joint  cavity  and  no  hyaline  cartilage   • Little  to  no  movement  because  of  the  dense  conne ctive  tissue   • Sutures  (skull),  sydesmoses,  interossesus ,  gomphoses  (teeth).   2. Cartilaginous  –  Use  some  sort  of  cartilage  as  the  connective  tissue  between  bones   • No  joint  cavity,  may  have  hyaline  cartilage   • Articulation  of  bones  are  united  with  cartilage   • Not  very  moveable   • Synchondroses  (with  hyaline   -­‐  ribs)  and  symphyses  (intervebebral   discs  or  disc  in  between  two  pelvic  bones)   3. Synovial  –  They  have  it  all  and  a  wide  variety.   • Synovial  tissue  resembles  egg  whites  (hence  ovial)   • Joint  cavity,  hyaline,  and  movement   • Most  of  the  joints  in  the  body     Fibrous  Joints   Type     Features   Example   Picture   Sutures   • Connected  by  a  dense   Coronal   connective  tissue  called   suture   sutural  ligament.   between   • Found  only  in  the  skull.   frontal  and   • Lots  of  strength  and  not   parietal   likely  to  fracture  because  of bones.   their  irregular  interlocking   edges.   • Slightly  moveable  in  infants   but  immovable  in  adults.   • Help  absorb  shock  in  skull.     Sydesmoses   • A  fibrous  joint  with  more   Anterior   distance  than  in  a  suture.   Tibiofibular   • Dense  irregular  tissue  is   joint,  the   arranged  as  a  bundle  and   tibiofibular   permits  limited  movement.   ligament   • Another  example  is   connects   gomphosis,  which  is  a   tibia  and   dentoalveolar  joint  (roots  of   fibula.     teeth  and  their  sockets).   Interossesus   • A  sheet  of  dense  irregular   1. Between   connective  tissue  that   radius   binds  neighboring  long   and  ulna.     bones  and  permits  slight   2. Between   movement.   tibia  and   • Help  hold  bones  together   fibula.   and  define  the  range  of   motion  between  the   bones.   • Provide  an  increased   attachment  site.       Cartilaginous  Joints   Type   Features   Example   Picture   Synchondr • Immovable  cartilaginous   The  growth   oses   joint  in  which  the  connecting   plate   material  is  hyaline  cartilage.   (epiphyseal)   • When  bones  stop  growing  in   in  the  femur.   length  the  hyaline  becomes   bone  and  the  joint  becomes   symphyses.     Symphyses     • Cartilangious  joint  in  which   Pubic   the  bones  are  connected  by  a   symphysis   broad  flat  disc  of   and   fibrocartilage.     intervertebra • These  are  slightly  moveable.   l  dscs.       Synovial  Joints   • Articular  Cartilage  –  The  bone  surfaces  within  the  capsule  are  covered  in  a  layer  of  hyaline   cartilage  called  articular.  It  does  not  bind  the  bones  together  but  covers  articulating  bones.  It   reduces  friction  between  the  bones  in  the  joint  during  movement  and  help  absorbs  shock.       • Joint  Cavity  –  A  space,  which  is  surrounded  by  a  connective  tissue  capsule,  that  attaches  to   articulating  bones.    Has  a  potential  space  in  holding  fluid.       • Articular  Capsule  –  Sleeve  like  capsule  surrounds  the  joint,  encloses  the  cavity  and  unites   the  articulating  bones.  Contains  two  layers   –  outer  fibrous  capsule  (dense  irregular   connective  tissue)  and  inner  synovial  membrane.  Membranes  permit  movement  and  provide   adipose  (fat)  pads  by  the  joints  for  cushioning.     • Synovial  Fluid  –  An  egg  white  type  fluid,  which  is   secreted  and  forms  a  thin  film  over  surfaces  within   the  articular  capsule.  This  is  for  nourishment   (oxygen  supply  and  removal  of  carbon  dioxide),   absorbing  shock,  and  lubrication  to  reduce  friction.     It  is  a  blood  filtrate.       • Reinforcing  Ligamentum  –  Intracapsular  (inside   articluar  capsule)  and  extracapsular  ligaments   (outside  articluar  capsule).  Have  articular  discs  and   sometime  labrum.       • Nerves  and  Vessels  –  Nerves  send  information  about  pain  in  a  joint,  degree  of  stretch   within  a  joint  and  reflexes  (doctor   hitting  your  knee).  The  signals  given  back  tell  your  body   to  adjust  its  movements  accordingly.  Vessels  in/near  the  synovial  joints  supply  synovial  fluid   with  oxygen  and  also  directly  remove  carbon  dioxide.  This  allows  proper  lubrication.   Synovial  fluid  is  also  called  weeping  lubrication.       • Bursae  and  Tendon  Sheaths  –  Because  of  the  friction  caused  by  movements  in  the  body  sac   like  structures  called  bursae  are  situated  to  alleviate  it.  Not  actually  part  of  the  synovial  joint.   Located  between  the  skin  and  bon e  and  also  filled  with  fluid.    Tendon  sheaths  also  reduce   friction  and  are  tube  like  bursae  with  a  tendon  through  them.  Remind  us  of  pigs  in  a  blanket.     Type   Feature   Example   Picture   Plane   • Flat  or  slightly  curved.   Between   • Side  to  side  and  back  and  forth  movements   the  carpal   between  flat  surfaces  of  bone.   and  tarsal   • Usually  permit  movements  in  two  axes.   bones.   • Can  also  move  in  three  axes.     Hinge   • Convex  surface  of  one  bone  fits  into   Knee,   concave  surface  of  the  other  bone.   elbow,   • Produces  the  motion  of  a  hinged  door.   interpphala • Permits  only  flexion  and  extension.   geal  joints     • Usually  allows  motions  in  one  axis.   and  ankle.   Pivot   • Rounded  or  pointed  surface  of  one   Atlas  and  axis  =   bone  articulates  with  a  ring  formed   say  “no”.  Head  of   partly  by  the  other  bone  and  party   radius  and  radial   by  a  ligament.  One  axis.   notch  on  ulna.     Condyloid   • Also  called  ellipsoid  a  convex  oval -­‐ Radiocarpal  joint.   shaped  projection  of  bone  sits  into   Metacarpophalang an  oval  depression  of  another  bone.   eal  joint.   • Has  two  axes.     Saddle   • One  bone  surface  is  saddle  shaped  and  the   Carpometacarpal   other  fits  into  the  saddle.   joint  between   • Two  axes  =  flexion/extension  and   thumb  and   adduction/abduction.  Plus  cirumduction.   trapizium.     Ball  and   • Ball  like  surface  of  one  bone  fitting  in toHip  joint.   Socket   a  cuplike  depression  of  other  bone.   Shoulder  joint.   • Three  axes  movements.           Types  of  Movement     Type   Description   Kind   Flexion   Decrease  in  the  angle  between  bones  usually  in  saggital  plane.   Seen   Angular   in  knee  or  elbow  movements.     Extension   Increase  in  the  angle  between  bones  usually  in  saggital  plane.    Seen   Angular   in  knee  or  elbow  movements.     Hyperextension   Extension  beyond  the  anatomical  position.     Angular   Lateral  Flexion   Movement  of  the  tru nk  in  the  frontal  plane.  B ending  sideways.   Angular   Adduction   Movement  of  bone  toward  the  midline  usually  in  the  frontal  plane.   Angular   Moving  arm  out  side  ways  and  bringing  it  back  in.   Abduction   Movement  of  bone  away  from  the  midline  usually  in  the  frontal   Angular   plane.  Moving  arm  out  side  ways  and  bri nging  it  back  in.   Cirumduction   All  angular  movements  in  succession  in  which  the  distal  end  of  the   Angular   part  moves  in  a  circle.  Rotating  arm  streches.   Pronation   Moving  forearm  with  palm  facing  posteriorly  or  down.   Special   Supination   Moving  forearm  with  palm  facing  anteriorly  or  up.   Special   Elevation   Superior  movement  of  a  body  part.  Closing  mandible.   Special   Depression   Inferior  movement  of  a  body  part.  Opening  mandible.   Special   Protraction   Anterior  movement  of  body  part  in  transverse  plane.   Moving  your   Special   mandible  outwards.   Retraction   Posterior  movement  of  body  part  in  transverse  plane.  Moving  your   Special   mandible  inwards.   Inversion   Medial  movement  of  sole.   Special   Eversion   Lateral  movement  of  sole.   Special   Dorsiflexion   Bending  of  the  foot  superiorly  (towards  dorsum).   Special   Plantar  Flexion   Bending  of  the  foot  inferiorly  (towards  sole  or  plantar  surface).   Special   Opposition   Moving  thumb  across  palm  to  touch  thumb  to  finger  on  same  hand.   Special   Gliding   Back  and  forth  or  side -­‐to-­‐side  movement  over  flat  bones.  Little   Gliding   change  in  the  angle  between  bones.     Rotat
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