K 2222 Articulations.docx

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Department
Health Sciences
Course
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Professor
Jamie Melling
Semester
Winter

Description
Functional Classification of Joints: 1) Synarthroses: Immovable joints (ex: skull sutures)  in axial skeleton 2) Amphiarthroses: Slightly moveable joints (ex: rib and sternum articulations)  in axial skeleton 3) Diarthroses: Freely moveable joints (ex: shoulder)  in appendicular skeleton Structural Classification of Joints: 1) Fibrous Joints: Tight joints without a cavity or an abundance of hyaline cartilage - Have little or no movement due to dense connectivt tissue (fibrous tissue) - Sutures (skull), Sydesmoses (interosseous membrane), Gomphoses (only teeth, have a pocket) 2) Cartilaginous Joints: Joints without a cavity, but a greater amount of hyaline cartilage than Fibrous Joints - Still not very moveable - The articulation of bones is united with cartilage - Symphyses (Vertebral disk  little hyaline), Synchondroses (have hyaline cartilage) 3) Synovial Joints: Have a joint cavity, lots of hyaline cartilage, and lots of movement - The most common joints in the body - The main feature is a joint cavity that enables movement - * All bones develop from hyaline cartilage - Therefore, all bones below the head (and not including the clavicle) have small amounts of hyaline cartilage Synchondroses: - Ex: Growth Plates - Epiphysis: The head of the bone - Diaphysis: The shaft of the bone - Between the epiphysis and diaphysis, the epiphyseal line is located - Epiphyseal Line: Known as the growth plate, where new hyaline cartilage is formed, and calcifies into bone - Bumps in the bone (ex: tibial tuberosity) are made from the pulling of muscles on the growth plates Symphyses: - Ex: Intervertebral Disks - Do not have capsules surronding them Components of Synovial Joints: 1) Articular Cartilage: Composed of Hyaline Cartilage Predominantly 2) Joint Cavity (Synovial Cavity): Aspace for holding synovial fluid 3) Articular Capsule: Mainly the outer fibrous capsule composed of dense irregular fibres as well as the inner synnovial membrane - Dense irregular fibres provide support in all movement directions - Purpose is to create a cavity 4) Synnovial Fluid: Nourishes and lubricates the articular surfaces - Is a filtrate of the blood that sits inside the synnovial cavity - Synnovial Membrane: Allows components of the blood to enter the joint cavity (synnovial fluid) - Oxygen moves into synnovial fluid to nourish, whereas glycoproteins are used as a lubricant 5) Reinforcing Ligamentum: - Intracapsular: Ligaments located within the capsule - Extracapsular: Ligaments located outside of the capsule 6) Nerves and Vessels: Allow for feedback about stretch, allowing proprioception - Neither nerves or vessels penetrate into the cavity, but instead all of them are found around the capsule - When you roll your ankle, you tear the capsule, and along with it the nerves - Therefore, you experience a loss of proprioception, making you roll over your ankle more often - The vessels are all used for weeping lubrication - Weeping Lubrication: Vessels nourish the tissue when it needs to / provides lubricant when it needs to - When a joint is open (ex: sitting), the synovial fluid is soaked up by the hyaline cartilage (nourishing) - When the joint closes (ex: standing), the synovial fluid leaves the hyaline, and lubricates - Synnovial Membrane: Located inside of the ligamentum in the joint cavity - Meniscus: Disk within the joint cavity that decreases friction Structure of Synovial Joints: Bursae and Tendon Sheets: - Busae:Asac of fluid in the body that serves to lubricate - Lie wherever there is a potential for friction - EX: Where skin rubs against bone (knee caps) - Tendons Sheets: Same structure as bursae, but run around a tendon, decreasing friction (pigs in a blanket) - Neither are actual parts of synovial joints, but are neighbours to them instead Major Synovial Joints: - Temporomandibular (TMJ)  Between mandible and temporal bone - Glenohumeral  Between humerus and scapula - Elbow, Radial / Ulnar Articulation - Hip, Knee, Ankle MovementsAcross Synovial Joints: - Biaxial: Movement about 2 axes (Plane Joints  carpals) - Uniaxial: Movement about 1 axis (Hinge Joint  elbow, or Pivot Joint) - Multiaxial: Movement about many axes (Ball and Socket Joint  Shoulder), allows for twisting as well - Condoloid
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