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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Jamie Melling

Anatomy: Background Information: - Henri Grey: First to study the human anatomy through dissection (Grey’s Anatomy) - Anatomy: Means ‘I Dissect’ - There are over 200 cells in the body  combine to form 4 tissue types - Each tissue type has a particular function - Palmerus Longus: Wrist flexor that is not common in everyone - Cervical Vertebrae # 7: Vertebrae that points out of neck, thus used as a landmark RegionalAnatomy vs. SystemicAnatomy: - RegionalAnatomy: The study of a specific region, and all of its parts - SystemicAnatomy: The study of the systems rather than individual areas of the body - No system functions solely by itself Anatomical Position: - Consists of the person standing facing forwards, toes pointed forwards, and hands supinated - People are symmetrical superficially, but internally they are not Planes of Reference: - Sagital Plane: Divides the body into left and right segments - Midsagital: Separates the body directly down the centre - Parasagital: Parallel to the midsagital, separating body into unequal segments - Frontal/Coronal: Separates the body into anterior and posterior segments - Transverse Plane: Separates the body into superior and inferior segments - The planes are used as a reference for medical scans - Ex: MRI’s use a magnetic force to attract water molecules, mapping the body on any plane Body Organization: - Chemical Level: Consists of atoms or molecules (macromolecules) - Cellular Level: Consists of combinations of molecules; making a cell. 200 different types of cells. - Tissue Level: Consists of combinations of cells; making a tissue - Organ Level: Consists of combinations of tissues; making an organ - System Level: Consists of combinations of organs, making a system - Organism Level: Consists of several systems, making an organism 1. Nervous Tissue 2. Epithelial Tissue 3. Connective Tissue 4. Muscle Tissue (Every organ has all 4 tissues) Epithelial Tissue: - Function: Abarrier throughout the body that protect against toxins entering the cardiovascular system - Location: Found on the skin, outside of the organs - Naming: First name = layering, second name = shape - Layering: Either simple (1 layer) or stratified (many layers) - Shape: 1) Squamous: Wider than they are tall, used for gas exchange (scale like) 2) Cuboidal: Box shaped, found in glandular organs (ex: pancreases / prostate) 3) Columnar: Column shaped, used for secretion Epithelial Tendencies: - Are close together, allowing for selective permeability - Avascular, don’t have direct blood supply (prevents toxins  directly into blood)… but do have nerve endings - Have proteins that are used to break down toxins - Are polarized (not symmetrical), nucleus is inferior in the cell, prevents DNAdamage - Highly regenerative, top layer is always dying, must be replaced quickly - Have cilia and microvilli that are used to mov
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