Muscles 4

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Department
Health Sciences
Course
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Professor
Jamie Melling
Semester
Winter

Description
Lateral Thigh: - Gluteus Maximus: Iliac Crest/Sacrum/Coccyx  Below Greater Trochanter (ischial tuberosity) - Extends / laterally rotates thigh at hip - Inferior Gluteal nerve - There is no actual lateral compartment to the thigh - Tensor Fascia Latae: Astocking that surrounds the thigh, keeping muscles tightly packed together, thus allowing them to have more strength - Gluteus Minimus and Gluteus Medius both run from the ilium to the greater trochanter, and are innervated by the superior gluteal nerve - They serve to abduct the thigh at the hip joint (and medial rotation) - Piriformis: Anterior Sacrum  Greater Trochanter - Lateral rotation of the hip / abduction of hip - Sacral nerves S1, and S2 - Sciatic nerve comes out of the piriformis to innervate hamstrings Posterior Thigh (Hamstrings): - Gracilis: Same as above - Semimembranosous: Ischial tuberosity  medial condyle - Flexes knee / extends thigh at hip - Sciatic Nerve - Semitentinosus: Ischial tuberosity  Medial / Proximal Tibia - Flexes leg / extends thigh at hip - Sciatic Nerve - Biceps Femoris: Ischial tuberosity  Head of fibula / lateral condyle - Flexes leg, extends thigh at hip joint - Sciatic Nerve - *Gracillis, semimembranous, and semitendinosus insert at ‘gooses foot’ - *Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, and Semimembranosus create the popliteal fossa Anterior Compartment of Lower Leg (superficial): - Tibialis Anterior: Lateral condyle / tibia / interosseus  first metacarpal and first cuneiform - Dorsiflexion / inversion - Deep fibular nerve - Has a long tendon used to reconstruct torn ligaments DeepAnterior Compartment: - Extensor Digitorum Longus: Lateral Condyle, Fibula, Interosseus  Phalanges 2-5 Lateral Lower Leg: - Peroneus Longus: Head of fibula / lateral condyle  1 metatarsal / 1 st cuneiform - Plantar flexion / eversion - Superficial fibular nerve - Peroneus Brevis: Body of fibula  base of fifth metatarsal - planter flexion / eversion - Superficial fibular nerve Posterior Leg (Calf): - Superficial Layer: - Gastrocnemius: Lateral / Medial Condyles  Calcaneus (via achilles) - Plantar flexion / knee flexion - Tibial Nerve - Soleus: Head of fibula / medial tibia  calcaneus (via Achilles) - Plantar flexion - Tibial nerve - Does not cross knee - Deep Layer: - Tibialis Posterior: Tibia / fibula / interosseus  2/3/4 metatarsals, navicular, all cuneiforms, and cuboid - Plantar flexion / inversion - Tibial nerve - Flexor Digitorum Longus: Posterior tibia  phalanges 2-5 - Plantar flexion, flexes toes - Tibial nerve - Flexor Hallucis: Inferior two thirds of fibula  big toe - Plantar flexion, flexes big to - Tibial nerve - Tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve The Heart: - Is able to beat on its own as long as it has access to oxygen - Functions: Supply blood to muscles / bones (systemic circulation), to the lungs (pulmonary circulation), and to itself - Myocardial Infarction: Alimitation of blood to a specific part of the heart - The heart is able to create huge amounts of pressure (blood pressure) - Location: Just behind the sternum on an angle - The apex is located in the left part of the sternum right above the diaphragm - Positioned in the pericardial sac - Sac contains pericardial fluid which decreases friction - The heart twists to ring the blood out of the heart, without the pericardial sac the heart would rub against lungs 3 Circulatory Circuits: - Pulmonary Circulation: Blood  Lungs - Systemic Circulation: Blood  Body - Coronary Circulation: Blood  Heart * The blue colour of a vein is due to the outer walls of the vein (blood is not actually blue) - Deoxygenated blood actually appears dark red - Syanosis: blue appearance that occurs when blood moves to the centre of a body when one is cold (ex: blue lips) - The terms artery and vein do not have anything to do with oxygen levels - Artery: Carries blood away from the heart - Vein: Carries blood towards the heart - Ex: Pulmonary arteries carry de-ox blood to the lungs, pulmonary veins carry ox-blood to the heart Pulmonary Circuit: - Blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated - Has to do with the right side of the heart - Less pressure is created (pulmonary BP < systemic BP) (15 mm/Hg) because the blood does not has to travel as far - When blood leaves the lungs, it is at maximum oxygen capacity, and the least carbon dioxide present Systemic Circuit: - Blood to and from the entire body - Has to do with the left side of the heart - More pressure created (systemic BP > pulmonary BP) (95 mm/Hg) because the blood must travel far throughout body, and it must occasionally move against gravity - Supplies tissues with oxygen and nutrients, the blood then returns with high levels of carbon di
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