Health Sciences 2330A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Abdominopelvic Cavity, Thoracic Cavity, Urinary Bladder

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Week 1 – January 8th, 2016 Virginia Polihronova
Introduction to the Human Body
Lecture Notes
Week 1 – January 8th, 2016
Virginia Polihronova
Introduction – Learning Objectives
-Describe the levels of structural organization that make up the human body
-List and explain the basic function of each body system
-Describe anatomical position
-Identify common anatomical regions of the body
-Explain anatomical planes
-Describe and apply anatomical directional terms to describe the human body
-Describe body cavities and identify their location
-List and describe abdominopelvic regions/quadrants
Anatomy is…
-The study of the structure and relationships among structures
-Can range from microscopic to macroscopic
Systems of the Human Body
Integumentary
-Protects
-Regulates temperature
-Eliminates waste (through sweating)
-Helps make vitamin D
-Detects sensations such as touch, pain, etc.
-Stores fat and provides insulation
oIncludes hair, skin & associated glands, fingernails, toenails
Skeletal
-Supports and protects body
-Provides a surface area for muscle attachments
-Aids body movements
-Houses cells that produce blood cells
-Stores minerals and lipids
oIncludes bone, cartilage, joints
Muscular
-Body movements
-Maintain posture
-Produces heat
oIncludes skeletal muscle and tendons
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Week 1 – January 8th, 2016 Virginia Polihronova
Cardiovascular
-Pumps blood through body
-Carries oxygen & nutrients
-Regulates acid-base balance
-Temperature regulation
-Helps body fight off diseases
-Repairs damaged blood vessels
oIncludes heart and blood vessels
Lymphatic
-Returns proteins and fluid to blood
-Protects against pathogens
oConsists of thymus, thoracic duct, spleen, lymph node, lymphatic vessel, red bone
marrow, pharyngeal tonsil, palatine tonsil, lingual tonsil
Nervous
-Generates nerve impulses to regulate body’s activities
-Monitors internal & external environment
-Responds to stimuli
oIncludes brain, spinal cord, nerve
Endocrine
-Regulates body’s activities via release of hormones
oIncludes hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid
gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis/ovary
Respiratory
-O2 from air to blood
-CO2 from blood to air
-Produces sounds through vocal cords
-Helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids
oIncludes pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, lung, nasal cavity, larynx
Digestive
-Physical & chemical breakdown of foods
-Absorb nutrients
-Eliminate solid waste
oIncludes salivary gland, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, mouth, pharynx, stomach,
pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
Urinary
-Produce, store, eliminate urine; regulate red blood cell production
oIncludes: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
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Week 1 – January 8th, 2016 Virginia Polihronova
Reproductive
-Produce, transport, store gametes
-Steroid hormones
oIncludes (Women): mammary gland, ovary, uterine tube, uterus, vagina
oIncludes (Male): ductus deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate, penis, testis
Anatomical Position
-The standard position of reference for the description of anatomical structures
oHead level and eyes facing directly forward
oThe lower limbs are parallel and the feet are flat on the floor and directed forward
oThe upper limbs are at the sides with the palms facing forward
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