Health Sciences 2330A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Golgi Apparatus, Extracellular Fluid, Nucleolus

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Week 1 – January 8th, 2016 Virginia Polihronova
Cells
Lecture Notes
Week 1 – January 8th, 2016
Virginia Polihronova
Learning Objectives
- List and describe the principle parts of the cell
- List and describe the major organelles of the cell
Cell Anatomy
-Plasma membrane: semi-permeable barrier that separates the cell’s internal environment
from its external environment; regulates passage of substances in/out
-Cytoplasm: gel-like fluid inside the cell
-Nucleus: houses the genetic material of the cell DNA
-Nucleolus: contains specific DNA for building RNA in ribosomes
-Mitochondria: powerhouse of the cell; creates energy (ATP)
-Endoplasmic reticulum: synthesis, storage, and transport of proteins and lipid
molecules (Rough ER Protein synthesis; Smooth ER lipid synthesis)
-Golgi apparatus: Packages proteins from rough ER into membrane-bound vesicles
-Lysosomes and Peroxisomes: Storage vesicles from Golgi; contain enzymes that act as
the digestive system of the cell (destroys damaged organelles, kills bacteria, and breaks
down dangerous chemicals)
-Secretory Vesicles: Transport proteins to cell membrane for release into the extracellular
environment
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