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Lecture 5

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2700A/B
Treena Orchard

2700 Lecture 5October 11 2011Another Reality children and childhood in the 1800s UKThe importance of urban development o Overcrowded cities poor sanitationThe role of the industrial revolution o Many children were part of the labour force and worked in factories or mines o Their economic contribution to their families was criticalTime of transition in the understanding of children o Not just miniature adults o Began to be seen as social moral and legal responsibility of the stateChildren at WorkThey took part in a wide range of jobs o Selling flowers matches and toys o Calling cabs and running errandsDomestic servants in wealthier homesChimney sweeping o 1840 law forbade anyone under 21 to do this o 1875 law passed that boys could not be chimney sweeps because of the dangers and health hazards associated with itThe FactoryChildren started working between the ages of 612Cotton spinning machines were so small that only children could fix themOften worked over 12 hours per day including nights and actually lived in the factories o Laws limited the number of kids per bed to 2Also places of educationo Children were to receive 2 hours of schooling per dayo Sunday school Crime and Punishment th Beginning of the 19 century child criminals were treated the same adults o Sent to prison shipped abroad whipped and sentenced to death1814 5 child criminals under the age of 15 were hung o The youngest boy was 81854 Reformatory Schools were established for offenders under 16 o Very rough places and physical violence was used as a means of control Disease and Death1830s 50 of all funerals in London were for children under 1050 of babies born to poor families died before the age of 1Many lived in overcrowded houses no sanitation poor nutrition and they were worked hardWaterairborne diseases were the most common o Typhoid diarrheal measles scarlet feverMatch stick girls often developed phossy jaw disease that rots the lower jawThe Beginning of Moral Responsibility 1847 Factory Limits Act o Women and children under 18 could only work a 58hour week 1
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