Health Sciences 2700A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Ethology, Observational Learning, Classical Conditioning
Course CodeHS 2700A/B
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September 9th – Chapter 1
Development Science – the study of constancy and change throughout the lifespan. Nothing
stays the same, things are bound to change
Theory- orderly statement, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts
•For example, describing behaviours of a baby 6-8 months old as they seek affection,
explain how and why infants develop this strong desire to bond and predict
consequences of this emotional bond for future relationships.
•Theories also provide organizing framework for observations of people, and secondly
theories that are verified by research give basis for helping us understand development
and how to improve treatment of babies and adults
Basic Issues in Development
•Continuous vs. Discontinuous?
oContinuous a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were
there to being with. Like a gradual curve, babies think like we do, just not to our
oDiscontinuous- a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to
the world emerge at specific times. Infants and children have different ways of
thinking than adults, and change through stages.
Stages- qualitative changes in thinking, feeling and behaving that
characterize specific periods of development
•One course of development of many?
oStage theorist assume that people everywhere follow the same sequence of
oContexts of Development- unique combinations of personal and environmental
circumstances can result in different paths of change
Ex. A shy individual vs. an outgoing kid will develop different context.
Western vs. Eastern kids as well
•Nature Vs. Nurture
oAre genetic or environmental influences more important?
oNature- DNA, hereditary information we receive from our parents at conception
oNurture- complex forces of the physical and social world that influences our
biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth
oStability- Persistence of individuals differences, lifelong patterns established by
oPlasticity- development is open to lifelong change(ability to change), change
occurs based on influential experiences
Development as a Dynamic System
•Ongoing process from conception to death
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