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Week 9 Aging Mind Lecture.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2711A/B
Aleksandra Zecevic

HS 2711B Aging Mind: Week 9 March 5th, 2014 FILM: Remember • The woman is reliving moments from her past • Remembers her sister • Two stories: her story from within the brain that is seeing things – and the story of a family member that is failing to provide adequate care • Consequences of Dementia – i.e., leaving the pot on the stove • Different types of dementia – how many are there? Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Fluid • Depends on basic information process skills:  Detecting relationships among stimuli  Analytical speed  Working memory • I.e., IQ tests • Peaks around time when you are 20 years old Crystallized • Skills that depend on:  Accumulated knowledge  Experience  Good judgment  Mastery of social conventions • Valued by person’s culture • I.e., if you have good crystallized intelligence in Western Culture and you move somewhere else, you may not transfer all of that • Increases in middle adulthood – measured by vocabulary, verbal, and reasoning • Peaks at around 45 Cohort Effects in Intelligence Studies Age-Related Slowing of Information Processing • Neural Network View  Neurons in brain die, breaking neural connections  New connections are less efficient • Information-Loss View  Information lost as it moves in steps through cognitive system  Whole system slows down to inspect and interpret information Individual and Group Factors in Intelligence Scores • Lifestyle  High education  Complex job or leisure  Lasting marriage  High SES • Personal  Flexible personality  Healthy  Gender  Cohort  Perceptual speed Attention in Middle Adulthood • More difficulties in  Multitasking  Switching attention  Focusing on relevant information  Connecting visual information  Inhibition • Could be linked to slower processing • Experience, practice & training help older adults compensate Memory in Middle Adulthood • Working memory decreases from 20s to 60s  Ineffective memory strategies (organization, elaboration and linking) due to slower processing, attention problems • Adults can compensate by:  Self-pacing  Strategy reminders  Relevant information • Few changes in:  Factual knowledge – i.e, time of the day  Procedural knowledge – i.e, driving a car  Metacognitive knowledge – i.e., parking where you always park so you know where it is Problem Solving and Expertise • Practical Problem Solving  Evaluate real-world situations  Achieve goals that have high uncertainty  Helped by expertise • Expertise  Extensive, highly organized and integrated knowledge base  Provides efficient, effective approaches to solving problems  Organized around abstract principles  Result of years of experience Creativity • Peaks in late 30s, early 40s • Changes with age  From spontaneous and intensely emotional to deliberate and thoughtful  From unusual products to integration of ideas  From egocentric to more altruistic goals • After 40, you are trying to find yourself and trying to establish yourself and finding out your capacities • We switch to integration • Altruistic = unselfish, humane, philanthropic Selective Optimization with Compensation • Select – choose personally valued activities, avoid others • Optimize – devote diminishing resources to valued activities • Compensate – Find creative ways to overcome limitations Memory 1. Deliberate • Recall more difficult • Context helps retrieval, but slower processing, smaller working memory make context harder to encode • I.e., Thinking about people’s names 2. Automatic • Recognition is easier than recall  More environmental Support • Implicit memory better than deliberate  Without conscious awareness  Depends on familiarity • I.e., multiple choice exams 3. Associative Memory - Deficit • Difficulty in creating or retrievi
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