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Berk p 4-16

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2711A/B
Treena Orchard

HS 2700A September 21, 2009 Readings Berk pp.4-16 • Theory: orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behaviour • provide frameworks for our observations - giving meaning to what we see • provide a sound basis for a practical action • Scientific Verification • all theories must be tested in order to stand as a theory • Continuous or Discontinuous Development? • the simple difference between the immature and mature being is amount or complexity • continuous - a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with. • discontinuous - a process in which new and different ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times. • regard development as occurring in stages (qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development) • “like climbing a staircase” • stage (discontinuous) theorists think that absolutely everyone follows the same stage of development • but everyone lives in different contexts (personal, environmental factors that can lead to change) • people from non-western societies have different social skills, feelings about the self and other compared to people from the western society because both groups live in different contexts • nature vs. nurture - which is more important? • some theorists believe both continuous and discontinuous development occurs • average life expectancy has increased over the years • 1900 - under 50 yrs • today - 80.1 yrs • lifespan perspective • development is lifelong • multidimensional / multidirectional • multidimensional - affected by blending forces • multidirectional - development is both growth and decline (i.e. memory declining, but knowledge on speech is growing) • highly plastic - development becomes less plastic, as both capacity and opportunity for change are reduced. • influenced by multiple interacting forces • change occurs in 3 broad domains : physical, cognitive, emotional/social • development is influenced by multiple factors: biological, historical, social, and cultural • Age-Graded Influences: events that are related to age, fairly predictable, age-framed • i.e. most individuals walk shortly after their first birthday • acquire language during the preschool years. • puberty around 12-14 • menopause in late 40ʼs to early 50ʼs • influenced by biology • History-Graded Influences: epidemics, wars, and periods of economic boom/ depression, and technological advances • explains why people are born around the same time (baby boom) - cohort • and that they tend to be alike if they are born the same era • Nonnormative Influences: events that are irregular, unpredictable, only happens to a few people • Age-Graded and History-Graded Influences are both Normative Influences (commonly happens to people) • Darwin - theory of evolution • natural selection, and survival of the fittest • G. Stanley Hall - child study movement • normative approach - measures of behaviour are taken by the population to represent typical development • Mental Testing Movement • Alfred Binet creating the IQ Test • in order to be able to identify children with learning disabilities and such. • How we are today and how we became who we are is dependent on our unique life history • psychoanalytic perspective: people move through stages in their lives in which they have to face conflicts. The way they resolve these conflicts determines the individualʼs ability to learn, to get along with others, and cope with anxiety • Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson • Freudʼs Theory • talk freely about painful events of their childhood • examined unconscious motivations of a person • psychosexual theory: how parents managed their childʼs sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development • id (biggest part, our biological needs and desires), ego (conscious, rational part), superego (conscience) • relations among the id, ego and superego make up oneʼs basic personality • sexual impulses shift from oral, anal and then to genital • if parents strike a good balance between the three, children grow their sexual impulses healthily. • Eriksonʼs Theory • psychosocial theory: in addition to the id and the superego, the ego requires attitudes and skills to make the individual an active, contributing member of the society. • Eriksonʼs theory is parallel to Freudʼs theory in the first five stages, but Erikson goes on to add 3 more stages regarding adulthood. • In contrary to Freudʼs theory, Eriksonʼs theory focuses on development being important in regards to each personʼs culture and life situation • Contributions and Limitations of the Psychoanalytic Theory • emphasis on a personʼs life history • no longer in the mainstream of human development research • theorists may have been so focused on the clinical approach that they forgot to use other methods. • almost impossible to test • Behaviourism: stimuli and responses, directly observable events • John Watson • Traditional Behaviourism: Ivan Pavlov • dog study: dogs salivated when the trainer came with food • dogs must have learned to associate neutral stimulus (the trainer) with another stimulus (the food) that produces a reflexive response (the salivation) • in response, the dog will salivate even if it only sees the trainer coming its way. • classical conditioning: he taught dogs to salivate around the sound of a bell (neutral stimulus) • baby Albert • operant conditioning: B.F. Skinner • the frequency of a behaviour can be increased by following it with reinforcers (prize) and punishments (consequences) • Social Learning Theory: behaviourism influences the development of social behaviour. • Albert Bandura • emphasizes modeling, also known as imitation, or observational learning, as a powerful source of development • social cognitive theory • with time, children become more selective in what they imitate • Contributions and Limitations • behaviour modification: is designed to combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undersirable behaviour and decrease desirable responses. • too narrow of a view • neglects peopleʼs contributions to their own development • Piagetʼs Cognitive-Developmental Theory • Piaget did not believe that childrenʼs development was based on rewards and punishments • cognitive-developmental theory: children actively constr
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