Health Sciences 2711A/B Lecture Notes - Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Albert Bandura
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September 21, 2009 Readings
•Theory: orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts
•provide frameworks for our observations - giving meaning to what we see
•provide a sound basis for a practical action
•all theories must be tested in order to stand as a theory
•Continuous or Discontinuous Development?
•the simple difference between the immature and mature being is amount or
•continuous - a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were
there to begin with.
•discontinuous - a process in which new and different ways of understanding and
responding to the world emerge at speciﬁc times.
•regard development as occurring in stages (qualitative changes in thinking,
feeling, and behaving that characterize speciﬁc periods of development)
•“like climbing a staircase”
•stage (discontinuous) theorists think that absolutely everyone follows the same stage
•but everyone lives in different contexts (personal, environmental factors that can
lead to change)
•people from non-western societies have different social skills, feelings about the self
and other compared to people from the western society because both groups live in
•nature vs. nurture - which is more important?
•some theorists believe both continuous and discontinuous development occurs
•average life expectancy has increased over the years
•1900 - under 50 yrs
•today - 80.1 yrs
•development is lifelong
•multidimensional / multidirectional
•multidimensional - affected by blending forces
•multidirectional - development is both growth and decline (i.e. memory
declining, but knowledge on speech is growing)
•highly plastic - development becomes less plastic, as both capacity and
opportunity for change are reduced.
•inﬂuenced by multiple interacting forces
•change occurs in 3 broad domains : physical, cognitive, emotional/social
•development is inﬂuenced by multiple factors: biological, historical, social, and cultural
•Age-Graded Inﬂuences: events that are related to age, fairly predictable, age-framed
•i.e. most individuals walk shortly after their ﬁrst birthday
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•acquire language during the preschool years.
•puberty around 12-14
•menopause in late 40ʼs to early 50ʼs
•inﬂuenced by biology
•History-Graded Inﬂuences: epidemics, wars, and periods of economic boom/
depression, and technological advances
•explains why people are born around the same time (baby boom) - cohort
•and that they tend to be alike if they are born the same era
•Nonnormative Inﬂuences: events that are irregular, unpredictable, only happens to a
•Age-Graded and History-Graded Inﬂuences are both Normative Inﬂuences
(commonly happens to people)
•Darwin - theory of evolution
•natural selection, and survival of the ﬁttest
•G. Stanley Hall - child study movement
•normative approach - measures of behaviour are taken by the population to
represent typical development
•Mental Testing Movement
•Alfred Binet creating the IQ Test
•in order to be able to identify children with learning disabilities and such.
•How we are today and how we became who we are is dependent on our unique life
•psychoanalytic perspective: people move through stages in their lives in which
they have to face conﬂicts. The way they resolve these conﬂicts determines the
individualʼs ability to learn, to get along with others, and cope with anxiety
•Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson
•talk freely about painful events of their childhood
•examined unconscious motivations of a person
•psychosexual theory: how parents managed their childʼs sexual and aggressive
drives in the ﬁrst few years is crucial for healthy personality development
•id (biggest part, our biological needs and desires), ego (conscious, rational part),
•relations among the id, ego and superego make up oneʼs basic personality
•sexual impulses shift from oral, anal and then to genital
•if parents strike a good balance between the three, children grow their sexual
•psychosocial theory: in addition to the id and the superego, the ego requires
attitudes and skills to make the individual an active, contributing member of the
•Eriksonʼs theory is parallel to Freudʼs theory in the ﬁrst ﬁve stages, but Erikson
goes on to add 3 more stages regarding adulthood.
•In contrary to Freudʼs theory, Eriksonʼs theory focuses on development being
important in regards to each personʼs culture and life situation
•Contributions and Limitations of the Psychoanalytic Theory
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