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Health Sciences 2711A/B Lecture Notes - Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Albert Bandura

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 2711A/B
Treena Orchard

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HS 2700A
September 21, 2009 Readings
Berk pp.4-16
Theory: orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts
provide frameworks for our observations - giving meaning to what we see
provide a sound basis for a practical action
Scientific Verification
all theories must be tested in order to stand as a theory
Continuous or Discontinuous Development?
the simple difference between the immature and mature being is amount or
continuous - a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were
there to begin with.
discontinuous - a process in which new and different ways of understanding and
responding to the world emerge at specific times.
regard development as occurring in stages (qualitative changes in thinking,
feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development)
“like climbing a staircase”
stage (discontinuous) theorists think that absolutely everyone follows the same stage
of development
but everyone lives in different contexts (personal, environmental factors that can
lead to change)
people from non-western societies have different social skills, feelings about the self
and other compared to people from the western society because both groups live in
different contexts
nature vs. nurture - which is more important?
some theorists believe both continuous and discontinuous development occurs
average life expectancy has increased over the years
1900 - under 50 yrs
today - 80.1 yrs
lifespan perspective
development is lifelong
multidimensional / multidirectional
multidimensional - affected by blending forces
multidirectional - development is both growth and decline (i.e. memory
declining, but knowledge on speech is growing)
highly plastic - development becomes less plastic, as both capacity and
opportunity for change are reduced.
influenced by multiple interacting forces
change occurs in 3 broad domains : physical, cognitive, emotional/social
development is influenced by multiple factors: biological, historical, social, and cultural
Age-Graded Influences: events that are related to age, fairly predictable, age-framed
i.e. most individuals walk shortly after their first birthday

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acquire language during the preschool years.
puberty around 12-14
menopause in late 40ʼs to early 50ʼs
influenced by biology
History-Graded Influences: epidemics, wars, and periods of economic boom/
depression, and technological advances
explains why people are born around the same time (baby boom) - cohort
and that they tend to be alike if they are born the same era
Nonnormative Influences: events that are irregular, unpredictable, only happens to a
few people
Age-Graded and History-Graded Influences are both Normative Influences
(commonly happens to people)
Darwin - theory of evolution
natural selection, and survival of the fittest
G. Stanley Hall - child study movement
normative approach - measures of behaviour are taken by the population to
represent typical development
Mental Testing Movement
Alfred Binet creating the IQ Test
in order to be able to identify children with learning disabilities and such.
How we are today and how we became who we are is dependent on our unique life
psychoanalytic perspective: people move through stages in their lives in which
they have to face conflicts. The way they resolve these conflicts determines the
individualʼs ability to learn, to get along with others, and cope with anxiety
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson
Freudʼs Theory
talk freely about painful events of their childhood
examined unconscious motivations of a person
psychosexual theory: how parents managed their childʼs sexual and aggressive
drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development
id (biggest part, our biological needs and desires), ego (conscious, rational part),
superego (conscience)
relations among the id, ego and superego make up oneʼs basic personality
sexual impulses shift from oral, anal and then to genital
if parents strike a good balance between the three, children grow their sexual
impulses healthily.
Eriksonʼs Theory
psychosocial theory: in addition to the id and the superego, the ego requires
attitudes and skills to make the individual an active, contributing member of the
Eriksonʼs theory is parallel to Freudʼs theory in the first five stages, but Erikson
goes on to add 3 more stages regarding adulthood.
In contrary to Freudʼs theory, Eriksonʼs theory focuses on development being
important in regards to each personʼs culture and life situation
Contributions and Limitations of the Psychoanalytic Theory
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