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Oct 15 - Chapter 7 - Theories & Models.pdf

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2801A/B
Terry Biggs

Chapter 7 - Theories & Models October-15-11 8:55 PM Theory - a systematic arrangement of fundamental principles that provide a The ElaborationLikelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM) basis for explaining certain happenings of life. Tools to help educators Explains inconsistencies in the results from research dealing w/ better understand what influences health & to thereupon plan effective the study of attitudes. Explains how persuasion messages aimed interventions directed at health-beneficial results. Has 3 major elements: at changing attitudes, were received & processed by people The major factors that influence the phenomena of interest Elaboration - the amount of effortful processing people put into The relationship b/w these factors receiving messages The conditions under which these relationships do or don't occur (the 3 major elements: how, when & why of hypothesized relationships) 1. Organizes multiple persuasion processes into 2 routes of Model - a subclass of a theory. Generalized, hypothetical descriptions, attitude change: often based on an analogy, used to analyze or explain something. Use i. Peripheral - require little thought about issue- theories to help understand a specific problem in a particular setting or relevant info; rely on simple cues/mental shortcuts - content. Not as specific as theories heuristics - as the primary means of attitude change Concepts - the primary elements/building blocks of a theory (beliefs) ii. Central - require thoughtful consideration of issue- Construct - when a concept has been developed, created, or adopted for relevant info & its relationship to pertinent use w/ a specific theory. The key concepts of a theory knowledge that one already has to form the primary Variable - the operational/practical use form of a construct. They specify bases for attitude change how a construct is to be measured in a specific situation 1) These processes make up an elaboration Theory-basedapproach - provides direction & justification for program likelihoodcontinuum activities & serves as a basis for processes that are to be incorporated into In order for effortful processing to occur, the recipient of the the HP program message must be motivated & able to processit thoroughly Theories answer why people aren't engaging in desired beh, how to change 1. The 2 processes can result in attitudes w/ similar valence, their beh, & what factors to look at when evaluating a program's focus but they typically lead to attitudes w/ different Disadvantages of theories: leaving out/ignoring factors that happen not to consequences be theoretically relevant, even tho they may be empirically significant 2. The model specifies how variables have an impact on There have been 66 theories & models used in HP practice, but 10 are used persuasion regularly to plan programs ELM useful in tailored messages - messages that are crafted for Types of theories & models: & delivered to each individ based on individ needs, interests & 2 groups: circumstances. Thus, it is more relevant to the individ & thus 1. Planning models/theories/models of implementation- theories & more likely to be processed thru the central route & thus more models used for planning, implementing, & evaluating HP programs likely to change attitude & beh 2. Beh change theories/change processtheories- specify the The TranstheoreticalModel (TTM) relationships among causal processes operating both w/in & across An integrative framework for understanding how individs & levels of analysis. They help explain how change takes place poplns progress toward adopting & maintaining health beh Beh change theories change for optimal health Ecological perspective - recognizes that health-related behs & conditions Core constructs include the stages of change, the processes of are a part of a larger system & can be approached from multiple levels. 5 change, the pros & cons of changing, & self-efficacy levels: Based on critical assumptions about the nature of beh change & 1. Intrapersonal/personal factors interventions that can best facilitate change 2. Interpersonal factors 1. The stage construct is an important part of the TTM b/c it 3. Institutional/organizational factors represents the temporal dimension of change (change takes 4. Community factors time) 5. Public policy factors People move from: precontemplation, contemplation These 5 levels are often condensed to 3: intrapersonal, (intend to change w/in 6 mo), preparation, action, interpersonal, & community maintenance, termination Continuum theory - identifies variables that influence action & to combine 2. Construct of the process of change. The covert & overt activities them in a prediction equation that people use to progress thru the stages Stage theory - comprised of an ordered set of categories into which people The experimental set of processes(consciousness raising, can be classified, & which identifies factors that could induce movement dramatic relief, self-re-evaluation, environmental re- from one category to the next. 4 elements: evaluation, & social liberation) are used in first 3 stages to 1. A category system to define the stages try to increase intention & motivation. 2. Ordering of stages The behaviouralset of processes (helping relationships, 3. Common barriers to change that people face in the same stage counter-conditioning, reinforcement management, 4. Different barriers to change that people face in different stages stimulus control, & self-liberation) are used in the last 4 Intrapersonal Level Theories stages in order to maintain beh change Focus on factors w/in the individual (knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, self- 3. The construct of decisionalbalance refers to the pros & cons of the behavioural change concept, mental history, past experiences, motivation, skills, & beh) Stimulus Response (SR) Theory 4. Construct of self-efficacy. Has 2 components: Reflects the combo of classical conditioning & instrumental conditioning a. Confidence - feelings f being able to engage in healthy behs across diff challenging situations theories. Believe that learning results from events (reinforcements) which reduce physiological drives that activate beh b. Temptation - situational temptation of those making Operants - operate on the enviro to bring about changes resulting in change to engage in the unhealthy beh TTM is based on 5 assumptions: reward/reinforcement Enviro consequences: reinforcement & punishment (+ & - for both) 1. No single theory can account for all the complexities of beh Extinction can occur change 2. Beh change is a process that unfolds over time thru a Theory of ReasonedAction (TRA) Developed to explain all volitional behs (behs that are performed at will). sequence of stages Distinguished b/w attitude, belief, intention, & beh 3. Stages are both stable & open to change just as chronic HP Units 1 & 2 Page 1
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