Filters blood body fluid recycled (200l) 25x our body fluid is recycled by the kidney. Removes waste and toxic product ions, urea, breakdown from our body -- dumps the toxins into urine where is exerted. Produces key hormones and chemicals erythropoietin -- stimulates red blood cell production * * renin a hormone used to maintain blood pressure. * calcitriol active form of vitamin d. Regulation of glucose level gluconeogenesis (producing new glucose molecule) Can have multiple kidneys, less kidneys can fuse together to make a horseshoe shaped kidney. Behind abdominal contents, behind peritoneal protected partly by ribs. Medial hilum of kidney renal artery, vein renal pelvis (urine exits) enters and leaves kidney. Left kidney is associated with pancreas, spleen, stomach, descending colon and jejunum. Right kidney is 2. 5cm lower than left kidney the liver weighs the kidney down, ascending colon and duodenum. Renal capsule -- innermost layer, protects kidney. * dense irregular connective tissue continuous with outer coat of ureter.