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Kinesiology Lectures- term 2.docx

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Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 1080A/B
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Matthew Heath

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Kinesiology Lectures- 1080 (Introduction to Psycho-motor Behavior) Kinesiology- Jan 11/12 (Wednesday) - Muscles have no memory, it’s the neurons in spinal cord - Q- what type of neuron communicates with muscles? - A- alpha motor neuron  it tells a extrafusal muscle fiber to contract Motor Learning - A set of internal processes associated with practice or experience leading to a relative permanent gain in performance capabilities (long term changes in ability to do a movement- ways to optimize learning experience) Motor Control - An area of study dealing with the understanding of the neural, physical and behavioral aspects of movement (neuro-systems that support function) - Oldest discipline of kinesiology Psychology - The brain as a computer; the serial nature of information processing - Memory for different tasks; motor task verses cognitive - (ie. brain can only do one thing at a time in order to learn next skill for cognitive stills- SERIAL PROCESS) - Richard Aktinsom and Shifering came up with model for human memory o Motor skills (cerebellum) are learned VERY differently then cognitive skills (cerebral cortex) - Engineering (1930’s-1940’s) - Human engineering o 1.) Arthur Melton (professor/ lieutenant) pilots can be selected based on specific individual abilities  Designed tasks for selecting pilots (ie. reaction time)- proved wrong because his tests weren’t valid o 2.) Paul Fitts*  Too many air plane accidents the result of faulty human/machine interface  Forefather of field of ergonomics  predicts that the time required to rapidly move to a target area  how we process information influences our interations with machines and computers (interested with design of planes- planes were crashing because of human and machine interface (switched switches so there was direct special compatibility) Neuroscience - Development of motor learning and motor control (link between structure and function) Reciprocal Innervation  First understood by C.S. Sherrington  Suppresses activity of an antagonist muscles when against muscles (muscles contracting)  Explains phenomenon such as walking or reaching  Final common path at the spinal cord produce muscular contraction Physical Education - Franklin M Henry o Examined whole body movements and developed experimental approaches to understanding how we learn to produce complex movements (ex. gymnastics, skiing) o New “gross” body movements (ie. whole body movements) Kinesiology- Jan 13/12 (Friday) The Nervous System (Topic #2) - System that supports skilled purposeful movements - We are concerned with central nervous system (spine, brain, cortical, and subcortical structures) - PNS- autonomic function (so we aren’t as interested with this) o Somatic division (sense where body is in space only part we care about) o ***Sensory organs contribute to CNS (central nervous system) through the somatic division of PNS (Q- example of sensory organ?  skin)*** The Hierarchy - strong hierarchy - classic or historical view of hierarchy system  not entirely correct - Think if the cerebral cortex as the big boss – it tells everything else how and when to function - Think of the thalamus, basal ganglia pons and cerebellumas being second in command - The brainstem is third in command - The spinal cord is a slave system to all the above - Bioelectricity also know as animal electricity - Seminal discovery (unexpected discovery) - Beginning of bioelectrical signals Speed of nerve conduction - RT History o Helmholtz (1850)- how fast a nerve can transfer communication to a muscle (interest in speech of nerve conduction)  Used isolated muscle and motor nerve of a frog  Measured time btw electrical stimulus  Found that muscle contracted sooner if further down the axis of a motor neuron  Btw 35-60m/s for the frog- approx. 35m/s for humans (still VERY fast neural conduction times) - Brain to artificial device  bio-prosthetic devices - Disease that can influence amplitude of conduction  Lou Garrick’s Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis- can’t get muscles to move because it destroys motor neurons). It influences the speed of conduction - MS disease- creates scars along the CNS Neurons and the Neuromuscular System - Picture- alpha motor neuron with muscle fiber (extrafusal makes it) it innovates= alpha motor unit (or motor unit) - Efferrent neuron (motor neuron) transmits info DOWN spinal cord - Afferrent neuron (sensory/receptor neuron) transmits info UP spinal cord to cortical or subcortical structures to be deciphered (get original info from SENSORY ORGANS) -Picture part of spinal cord Incoming- enters through dorsal root (back of spine) Not at all related to each Outgoing- exit through ventral root (front of spine) other Cerebral Cortex - Right side of brain is left on pictures, left side of brain is right on pictures - Both sides make the cerebral cortex - Phrenology- philosophies that brain is divided into areas for different attributes (ex. hope, courage, etc.) - Invevo- look into the brain Occipital Lobe - Center of visual processing (not perception type) - Contains primary and secondary visual areas - V1- primary visual cortex (initial processing structure- take up a LARGE area of brain also very packed with neurons) - Is strongly influenced by cortical magnification because of the geography of eyes (ex. disproportionally represents central vision rather then peripheral vision o David Hubel- measured electrical activation of 1 neuron in active and awake cat- discovered different types of neurons in V1  Single cell recording of V! in cat  Binocular cells in V1  Blob = color ensembles in cylindrical shapes (only active for color presented in specific orientation  2 class of neurons- Inter-blobs = orientation sensitive (these neurons only become active for edge and shape discrimination)  also come with binocular cells  blends together info coming from L and R eye- stereopsis (this process – depth perception or depth vision)  when binocular cells develop there is a critical time period when they develop (kitten with patch for 6 weeks never developed binocular cells) Kinesiology- Jan 16/12 (Monday) Cortical Structures -Parietal Lobe (think of PL as sensory to motor interface because the PL contains the primary somatic cortex (S1) - Its located on post central gyros- processing sensory info - It’s involved with movement. - Has two component inferior parietal Lobe (planning movement) and superior parietal Lobe (integrating sensory info for control of action- modify ongoing movement via incoming sensory information) ex. if puck is deflected goalie must respond to new movement of puck - the right parietal lobe plays specialized function for visospatial attention -Lesion on right PL results in Visual Neglect- where they can’t direct attention to their left) *ex. pictures on slide and neglect patient can’t draw the left side of the picture) can’t attend visual stimuli in left visual field resulting from lesion on right parietal lobe. One technique to fix is to use glasses that shift visual field- Just know- it can be fixed with rehabilitation -contains primary somatosensory cortex Temporal Lobe - seat of visual perception -primary function in visual object recognition (part of brain that allows us to recognize stuff, people, etc) - contains primary auditory cortex. Left TL is thought be seat of auditory cortex) - location of the hippocampus (substructure) (memory and learning)(thought to be the structure via synaptogenesis- part of brain that learns new things in terms of cognitive memory ie. Math formula, poem, where you were at a certain time) cognitive memory DIFFERERT from motor memory -95% are right handed- 99% of people have language lateralized to left side of TL (vast majority of people have language lateralized to left TL**) Frontal Lobe - functions in working memory - contains primary and secondary motor areas - “identity of self” is mediated by FL - contains LOTS of functions- ones with movement are rare - M1 is primary motor cortex (contained in FL) it resides on pre-central gyros M1 sends majority of messages from brain to spinal cord (secondary motor area (supplementary motor area-SMA- and pre-motor area-PMA) modify activity of M1**) - damage to M1- if lesion to M1- it would be the most severe movement deficit (inability to preform fine motor movement-moving fingers and thumbs in particular) have POWER GRIP can’t preform precision grip (index and thumb) Subcortical Structures Brainstem: (more of a relay station that transfers info) -has roles in attentional control - has structure called superior colliculus which will move eyes in direction of stimulus (only important role of brain stem for our purposes) -role in basic attention, arousal , and consciousness. All info to and from our body passes through the brain stem on the way to or from the brain Basal Ganglia - group of nuclei referred to as basil ganglia connected to thalamus and cerebral cortex - have strong connection (receive and send info) from and to cerebral cortex! AND excite M1 neurons - well known disorder from deficit of Basil Ganglia is Parkinson’s* cure: Paladatomy (which excites neurons) helping to control movement Kinesiology- Jan 18/12 (Wednesday) Subcortical Structures Cerebellum - involved in the coordination of voluntary motor movement, balance, and equilibrium and muscle tone - involved with coordination of skilled movement (ex. using right and left hand together, rubbing head, patting stomach) - also important for sense of gate and balance (sense of equilibrium) - Regulates muscle tone (background muscle tone- ie resting muscle tone) - muscle memory (implicit or motor memory)- learning a new skill its cerebellum that involved in learning it. - Thought to be clock mechanism (when a muscle should contract and relax)- ex. stuttering (soft cerebellar deficit) - Ex. cerebellum lesions – throwing ball- couldn’t time when to release ball (TIMING off) - Disease: What is a Stroke? Importance for our understanding of the brain? Hemorrhagic Stroke - happens because of: -rupture of arterial wall leading to bleeding within the brain -blood very toxic to neurons (destroys neurons, empty area gets filled with cerebral spinal fluid- LOSS that part of the brain) Ischemic Stroke - Happens because of: high cholesterol, blood clot - Blockage of artery to or within the brain - Lack of oxygen (anoxia) leads to neuronal death Main point: -Stoke kills neurons in that part of brain and it gets reabsorbed into body - cannot grow back - recovery is all about finding ways to rewire the brain to look after the functions that originally were the job of the neurons destroyed The Primary Motor Cortex (M1) -vast majority of info that leaves the brain leaves through M1 - Part 1- dog (found that probing one part of brain- dog wagged tail) - Part 2 Jackson- wife had epilepsy- looked at what happened before during and after her seizure. He noted that it spread in a uniform way (started in fingers, neck, head.. etc) - part 3. Wilder Penfeld (when he came across M1 part of the body would twitch. Found that the M1 had a very specific mapping called homunculus) The Human Homunculus - homunculus representation (divided into lots of parts- toes, hands, lips, etc) - less neurons associated with toes then with hands or face - speech is MOST difficult motor skill to preform - Found that the same thing was present for S1 - Penfeld was wrong with: simplicity of M1 (neurons are sensitive for tuning movement directions**) ex. Raster Plot** basic technique to demonstrate activation of a single neuron. Each tick is depolarization of neuron (how fast it is firing) can see directional coding of single neuron (directional response). - He also thought it was just a relay station which it isn’t Kinesiology- Jan 20/12 (Friday) LAB 1: Register on website There will be 6-10 MC questions on Test 1 taken directly from the MC questions for each module http://phrp.nihtraining.com/index.php User name: [email protected] Password: Srnhjr6* Locked in Syndrome: - cerebromedullospinal disconnection - Individuals who have a stroke- it disconnects cortical centers from brainstem (can’t move any voluntary muscles) - Happens in the pons region of the brain (ventral pons) - They are fully conscious but can’t move (some can’t move ANYTHING), some can move small muscles such as blinking - Patient is conscious and awake but cannot communicate due to paralysis of nearly all (or sometimes complete) voluntary muscles - Frequently caused by damage to specific portions of the lower brain stem - see story of Jean- Dominique Baudy “The Diving Bell and the Butterfly” (found out these people aren’t in a persistent vegetative state- there are awake) -Penfeld thought it was a strict somatotopic map but it is actually a gross somatotopic map - M1 isn’t just a relay station it does things such as specifies the direction of response (codes direction of response), can learn coordinate skilled movement by itself - to test they zapped M1 in monkey (it would just twitch) BUT with prolonged zap (it would make move hand to mouth- no matter where hand was). A skilled purposeful action such as feeding is stored in M1. - So its responsible for creating skilled purposeful actions, and codes directional response - Cortical-motor-neuronal Activity is movement specific - When monkey performed precision grip task it fired GREATLY - When monkey performed power grip there wasn’t much activation - There are neuron in M1 that code for precision grip Thalidomide and developmental dysmelia (incomplete development) - Impact of cortical reorganization. - Signs of phantom pain - Functional Magnetic Resonance Image: found that area of activation for hands on M1 in healthy individuals is GREATER then those with dysmelia - This proves that brain can adapt to an incomplete development by not dedicating a large amount of space on M1 to this area  demonstrates PASTICITY OF THE BRAIN (Brain Plasticity- brain can adapt to new things) ** Control and Kindled (diagrams) (wanted to see if people with seizures (epilepsy) had different M1 mapping then normal people) - kindled rat (electrical exposure to the brain) makes them have seizure - tested after repeated exposure to see if the different areas on M1 are changed or different then a healthy individual’s brain - Found that a kindled rate had a bigger and different motor map then a controlled (normal) rat Kinesiology- Jan 23/12 (Monday) Slide 1- D1 and mouth diagram Intact is left side of brain Right sqare moves closer to the thumb- becomes adjacent to the thumb. Because the thumb is no longer there the mouth portion moves into that area and gets bigger (invade and take over that part)- called neural plasticity 2- if you don’t have epilepsy then the head is upside down 3- Phantoms in the Brain – Ramastrondra (good book) - Important in the plasticity of the brain - Phantom limbs- pain relieved through mirror box - M1 and S1 are plastic regions of the brain (can be changed through intensive rehabilitations to the brain) - In young individuals the brain is EXTREMELY plastic and can regain almost all functions if they can retain an intensive rehabilitation system 4- Monkey see monkey do slide - Reflects mirror neurons in frontal brain region - In frontal lobe have mirror neurons.. they allow us to do something by seeing someone else perform the task - Allows us to act or produce a movement based on observation 5- Rizzolatti- monkey had neuron activation in frontal lobe when watching scientist eat - represents SINGLE cell activation (neuron activation) - 1 picture- monkey watching another monkey grab food reward - 2 – monkey watching scientist grab and eat - 3 monkey grabs and eats - The raster plot was the SAME PATTERN OF NEURON ACTIVATION for all 3 cases - Mirror neuron system** - Autism (may have undeveloped mirror neuron system- can’t participate with other people well in environment, hard to show emotion) 6- Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) unilateral lesion - monkey has to grab grab food reward from well (right thumb, left finger working together) - ublated SMA- after 5 months it couldn’t do two different task with each hand but can’t independently preform different tasks with its hand - structure in the brain that control bimanual movements 7- Can communicate DIRECTLY with spinal cord** (its communication can link directly to alpha motor neurons that control hand muscularture - specific to when they fire - output to corticospinal pathway as well as M1 projections - projections terminate on hand and finger musculature - active for internally generated activities - complex movement sequences (sequence specific - some neurons fire only in relation to a specific movement sequence) ex. driving a manual car - activity increases in relation to movement complexity - SMA activity for “real” or “imagined” movements (if you think about activity SMA neurons are excited so it gives them practice even though you aren’t actually preforming the task - In monkeys damage to SMA produces deficits in bimanual coordination - In humans the deficits are not as profound because it usually doesn’t involve the whole SMA its usually partial - They communicate HUGEY with primary motor cortex 8- Premotor Area (PMA) - Sends fewer outputs to spinal cord then SMA - Triggered by external sensory events and delayed action (when environment tells you to move rather then SMA with is only when YOU tell your body to move) - Its visual stimulus that excites PMA neurons (ex. baseball coming towards you) - PMA important for visual guided movement o Monkeys with PMA damage are unable to avoid obstacles o PMA damage in monkeys elicits perseveration behavior o Single cell recordings show increased PMA activity 60ms after visual stimuli presentation (VERY FAST- half the time is takes you to blink your eyes) - Can’t avoid obstacles in their environment 9- M1 and PMA raster plots - Visual cues for finger sequence, or internal- they decide when to produce movement - For visual task PMA neurons fire A LOT, in internal the PMA neurons for same movement are hardly activated - Exact opposite for SMA- it fires greatly for internal cues and not at all for visual cues - So: o SMA active for internal movement o PMA are active based on external visual movement Kinesiology- Jan 25/12 (Wednesday) 1- Cortical Reorganization (or cortical plasticity) - brain can reorganize itself (good for learning new activity or for people who have damage to part of their brain)- - M1 damage impairs voluntary behavior however with practice the activity can be reacquired - Cortical reorganization - Functional Magnetic ndage (lights up when activated) - Test finger test- 2 control task (didn’t practice at all- only SLIGHTLY different) when practiced it was MUCH better (tells you that M1 neurons in the primary mortor cortex are plastic!! It’s the structure that some OT’s think is not plastic) - Highly movement specific - Shows cortical plasticity in M1 and its movement specific - Take home: training is VERY SPECIFIC (ie. Practice 1 specific task) - Not just M1 that’s plastic- volume of brain changes when learning juggling ( 3 months to practice) - 3 brain scan (before juggling, afer 3 months of juggling, 3 months of no juggling) - MT (or V5) and parietal region were the only regions that researchers found that increased in size with practice- after not practicing they went back down to their normal levels (use it or lose it) - Significance in cortical volume after three months of training o Bilateral MT/V5 (in occipital lobe- know because of “V” part- visual processing area- its involved in detecting movement ) o Left intraparietal sulcus (IPS- sensory to motor interphase function- __ ) o Following three months without training cortical volume returned to baseline (normal) levels 2- Brian picture 3- - demonstrates the regions of the cortex that communicates directly to the spinal cord - parietal lobe can send info straight to spinal cord (same with the others labelled in picture) - Therefore we know that these structure have direct control over movement 4- Cerebral Asymmetries - 1.) Two Hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are linked by the corpus callosum (basically making the two brains into one) - lots of communication btw the two hemispheres (have to because each side has specialized functions) - Left brain is believed to be dominated for planning and dominated system - Pracsis system- highly developed movement system that allows us to do complex movement - Right Hemisphere is used for visual or special processing also lateralized for haptic processing (being able to know something by touch), also attention is in this part 2.) left and right cerebral hemispheres have specialized functions 5- Split Brain Syndrome - effective technique for epilepsy - contralateral sensory and motor (left brain- right side, right brain, left side) - videos: those with split brain syndrome can very well learn new instruments, because they require independent movements of left and right hands 6- Cerebral Asymmetries - Broca (interested in people who lost ability to speak- lesions on Broca’s region- found that that part is responsible for creating speech- **Broca’s Aphasia is where you can’t speak**- - Wernicke- lesions on Wernicke’s region are referred to as Wernicke’s aphasia- - Both lateralized to left region - Example on left- Broca’s Aphasia- profound difficulty producing speech (swear words usually on right side so can produce)- people with this know exactly what they want to say but can’t produce it into speech - Example on right- Wernicke’s- string together meaningless words- don’t have comprehensible speech Kinesiology- Jan 27/12 (Friday) 55-60 MC 50MC Left Hemisphere injury look for: - Wernicke’s aphasia– Speech comprehension - Broca’s aphasia- Speech production - Conduction aphasia- what happens is that the axons that attach Wernicke’s and Broca’s are cut (speech comprehension, speech production- not connected)- they can comprehend and produce speech but they can’t repeat after someone (can’t repeat speech) ** - Concussion assessment – called IMPACT (tested before, during, and after the concussion) – two new concussion prevention research methods- neck restrainer, and hydration - 1- neurons in the left speech region of our brain our more complex the homologous right brain o bigger o more dendritic trees (spread out more) o referred to as magnopyramidal neurons (in Broca’s region) o may be the reason why its dominant for speech production o Question: are we born with them or do they develop (nature or nurture- don’t know) o Homologous = opposite side (looking at homologous region it would be the same region but on the other side of the brain) 2- Apraxia: A disorder of learned, skilled purposeful movement not related to muscle paralysis or comprehension deficits (unable to comb hair, use a hammer, etc)- they happen when you have Left Hemisphere injury (ie stroke) - Ideational Apraxia (inability to evoke the representation of an action by memory (can’t remember how to comb hair)- Like Wernicke’s- speech comprehension - Ideomotor- inability to translate to appropriate innovatory patterns into action (know exactly what you have to do and can explain it but can’t actually do it)- like Broca’s speech production - Conceptual Apraxia- lose ability to know appropriate tools for action (ie razor to eat soup) Pantomime Condition- preforming action in response to verbal command**** (how you test for apraxia)- ideational apraxia is if you can’t do it - Neither completely ideational or Ideomotor it’s a bit of both - If you are a Ideomotor you can’t pantomime or imitate** but in ideational can’t pantomime but CAN imitate Another form of Apraxia- CK - She could pantomime, she could imitate - But when given a tool to preform the action she couldn’t do it. (she could pretend to eat soup but couldn’t actually- it was the tool that was the problem) - Called Somatosensory Apraxia – loss of ability to use an object due to lack of perception of its purpose. You can either see Apraxia in developing children or in Left head injuries Development Dyspraxia- is Apraxia in developing children (they look clumsy and have hard time speaking, its gets better as child grows up)- do movements in out of order way Cerebral Asymmetries in Down Syndrome- - Instead of processing speech and language with left hemisphere (95% of people) they decode speech with their right hemisphere BUT they produce speech in their left and movement executive systems still in left. If you give verbal skills its difficult for them to act on it - DS patients have thinner corpus coliseum and its rounder- why this is important: because when they transmit info from right to left hemisphere and the CC isn’t developed as well so the info dis - Rostral fifth- responsible for language communication between CC, its much thinner (not getting good quality information) - They are good learners with visual information - Because they have a well developed mirror neuron system (the thing that is undeveloped in Autism) Kinesiology- Jan 30/11 (Monday) - put X through spinal cord slide (not going to talk about it) - green dot = cell body of an alpha motor neuron - Q- what is a propriospinal neuron (interneuron*)? A- it’s a neuron that exists in spinal cord that allows neurons to communicate with one another - Long pink think extrafusal muscle fiber, beside it intrafusal muscle fiber (it sends info to spinal cord)- they are controlled by motor neurons (gama motor neuron)- tells the intrafusal muscle fiber how sensitive it should be to stretch which alpha motor neurons actually cause the muscle fibers to stretch CC modulates action of motor neurons in brain stem and spinal cord: corticalbulbar tract - motor neuron activity organized by cerebral cortex - cortical bulbar fibers extend form motor cortex to ___ - in bulb area of brainstem where upper body neurons meet lower body neurons - important for moving upper and lower facial muscles (facial muscularture) - both on face region of M1 - perimeter tract - corticalbulbar is part of it - descending motor pathway you have a cell body and axon interaction with and a (upper motor neuron- cell body and axon- red), with lower motor neuron (same as saying alpha motor neuron) - facial muscles is divided into rostral (innervates forehead- also innervates bilaterally- sends bilateral projections- receives its info from BOTH sides of the brain (right and left M1) and caudal (innervates mouth parts- has contralateral projections) - caudal part innervated from contralateral cortex (left one only receives innervation from right side of M1) - what is the impact of an upper vs. lower motorneuron lesion Ventral Corticospinal Tract - sends axons INTO the spinal cord (usually only go to the bulb of the brain) - originate from M1 - descend “uncrossed in ventral columns of the spinal cord, forming ventral corticospinal tract (don’t cross over) - innervates axial muscularture** - allows coordinated movement (ex. bending at hips) its facilitated by propriospinal neurons (allows neurons to communicate with one another) Lateral Corticospinal Tract - Originate from M1 - 75% of fibers cross at pyramidal decussation (in brain stem) - Monosynaptic connections (with alpha motor neurons** unlike ventral which synapses with intrafusal neurons) allows an individual neuron to have direct control of alpha motor neuron which allows for independent muscle (digit) control - Innervates distal musculature (in particular muscles of the hands)- does it via monosynaptic connections allowing for individual control ( ex. holding pen, all fingers are controlled separated) - Goal-directed actions Chart of monosynaptic Important difference btw ventral and lateral corticospinal tracts - 1. Lateral CT connects with (ie. synapses) a motor neuron - 2. Ventral corticospinal tract connects to propriospinal neurons which ultimately synapse with motorneurons o propriospinal neurons allows coordination between multiple motorneurons (does not have direct connections with alpha motor neurons where ventral does) Important Terms: Innervation- distribution of nerves to a part of the body Extrafusal fibers- innervated by alpha motor neurons Intrafusal motor neuron- innervation by a gama motor neuron Alpha motor neuron- a neuron innervating power- producing, extrafusal muscle fiber Motor unit- motorneuron and all muscles it innervates; a unit of force production in skeletal muscle individual alpha motor neuron and ALL intrafusal muscle fibers it innervates - alpha motor neurons are much larger then Y- motorneurons (gama) # of neuron fibers associated with a motor unit ranges from 10 (eye_ to thousands (back musculature) - eyes have lower innervation ratio because an eye is much more precise (eye has lower innervation ratio) - The larger they are the faster they are (alpha motor neurons can transfer info much faster) Fusi-Motor Neurons (Gama motor neurons) - smaller then AMN innervating intrafusal fibers and changing sensitivity of muscle response to dynamic stretch - Intrafusal fibers orientated in parallel with extrafusal fibers - Polar connections between intrafusal and extrafusal fibers - Tell intrafusal muscle fibers how rigid or relaxed they should be Kinesiology- Feb 01/12 (Wednesday) MIDTERM- 87% - questions: parts of the the CNS put brain and spinal cord (CC, Kinesiology- Feb 03/12 (Friday) ***Sir Francis Gulton- British philosopher, mathematician -interested in the application of numbers - thinks everyone has a number grid implanted in them - ex write numbers 1-10 (left to right less creative then those who do it differently - special numerical association of response codes (ie the SNARK effect) - numbers 1 or 2 flashed to the left of fixation cross have slower reaction time then an 8 or 9 - but if a 8 or 9 is flashed to the right it is faster then if 1 or 2 is flashed to the right side - snark effect shows us that cognition and movement are STRONGLY linked to one another - LINKS COGNITION AND MOVEMENT 1.) CDC estimates btw 50000 and 300000 concussions in sport/yr 2.) Two forms of sport concussion: a. Simple- limit players participation during symptomatic period but no intervention required during the recovery period- athlete typically returns to play without further problems b. Complex- continued symptoms during recovery period (usually associated with episode of loss of consciousness) 3.) In NCAA football an athlete with previous concussion is 5.8 times more likely to sustain multiple concussions 4.) Athletes with multiple concussion recover much slower then athletes who have experiences a single concussion 5.) Athletes with multiple concussions show poorer memory recall then athletes with a single concussion when tested two days post concussion 6.) Athletes with multiple concussion show performance that is 7.7 worse then single concussion athletes in a memory recall test ERP Measures of cognitive processing -event related potentials (ERPS) are averaged electrical brain responses to time-locked stimuli - N2pc – ERP component related to the focusing of visiospacial attention - P300- measure of stimulus classification processing speed (how fast can you process and classify a stimulus) - these two ERPS are in a temporal orientation (ie. N2pc first then P300 next) - no difference then color trail task and memory test in non-concussed, one time concussion, and more then two concussion - but when doing the box classification and response there is no difference in the N2pc but there is a BIG difference in the P300 (lowest in multiple concussed athletes) have trouble processing and classifying stimulus (its 9 months after last concussion) - equivalent neuropsychological test profiles of non-concussed, concussed, and multiple concussed athletes - no difference in N2pc in non-concussed, concussed, and multiple concussed athletes - Suppressed P300 activity in multiple concussed athletes - The specificity of the long term effect of concussion provides a framework to pinpoint the cognitive system impaired in multiple concussion Motor Unit Types 1.) fast twitch fatigable (FF) (Fast Motor Unit) - Characterized by highest conduction velocity (100m/s) - Largest muscle diameter - Innervate fast twitch muscle fibers 2.) Fast twitch; fatigue resistant (FR) - Characterized by medium conduction velocity (60m/s) - Medium fiber diameter (the size determines the speed of conduction) - Innervate fast and/or slow twitch muscle fibers 3.) Slow twitch fatigue resistant (SR) (slow motor unit) - characterized by slow conduction velocity (40m/s) - small fiber diameter - innervate slow twitch muscle fibers Motor Unit and Muscle fiber types in Athletes 1.) sprinter: 80% fast and 20% slow motor units 2.) marathoner: 20% fast and 80% slow motor units 3.) Average person: 50% and 50% 4.) Couch potato 60% fast and 40% slow 5.) Spinal injury 96% fast and 4% slow (mechanism that allows for motor unit types to change and the muscle fibers it innervates to change) they are not preforming long duration movement so they have lots of fast twitch muscle fibers - can training alter motor unit and muscle fiber types ? yes, they are trainable The Henneman Size Principle - how they are recruited - the recruitment of motor units within a muscle proceeds from small motor units to large ones o low force contractions nearly all force produced by slowest motor units o if contraction force increased larger motor neurons start to fire o at the highest levels of force -maximal voluntary contraction MVC) the largest motor units are recruited - what happens to motor neuron types when age?  older adults have reduction of fast fatigable motor units (older adults at an increased risk for falling) Kinesiology- Feb 06/12 (Monday) Who is faster? Initiator or reactor? (ex. gun duel) Reacting to someone else was 10% faster** Cognitive (long pathway) where it needs to pass through many structures before getting to M1 **Extrageniculate pathway (old pathway)- relies on superior colliculus (responds to dynamic visual information)- can send visual info directly to M1 (short pathway- because of this action can be initiated faster when you react FAST VISUAL PATHWAY** The Scientific Method (Topic 3) - Goal of science o Understand  Describe  Explain  Predict - Empiricism o Verification by observation  Proposals are subjected to a test  Perform an experiment and obtain data - Experiment – about proving hypothesis or disproving - Manipulate something - independent variable o variable that is manipulated by the experimenter o observered effects of independent variable on dependent variable - dependent variable o variable that is manipulated o change in dependent variables is assumed to be a result of chage in independent variable Classifying and Identifying Motor Skills (Topic 4) Motor skills can be classified using three schemes 1.) Task Organization 2.) Motor and Cognitive Elements 3.) Levels of environmental Predictability 1.) task organization – on a continuum a. Discrete skill: a skills that is well organized such that the action is usually brief and has a well defined beginning and end (ex. putting/golf) b. Serial Skills (combo of discrete skills)- i. A type of skill characterized by serial discrete actions connected together in a sequence ii. Often the order of the actions is critical to performance success iii. Order of events is important in performance success iv. (ex. driving a manual car, assembly line, playing the piano) c. Continuous Skill: a skill that unfolds without a recognizable beginning or end in an on going and often repetitive fashion (ex. swimming, steering a car) 2.) Motor and Cognitive elements a. Motor skills: primary determinant of movement success is the quality of the movement (high jumping, weight lifting b. Cognitive skills: primary determinant of success is the quality of the performers decision making (in young age is STARTS with lots with lots of cognitive and goes to movement) -During skill learning we generally progress from cognitive to motor - also on a continuum 3.) Level of Environmental Predictability a. Open skill: skill performed in an unpredictable or in motion environment requiring individuals to adopt their movement in response to the dynamic properties of the environment b. Closed skill: skill performed in a predictable environment (stationary environment) and that allows individuals to plan their movements in advance (ex. gold- don’t have to worry about someone tackling them) i. Good for rehab because people can plan movements ahead of time Kinesiology- Feb 08/12 (Wednesday) Topic 5- Measurement, Interpretation, and Evaluation of Motor Skill Performance Measuring Motor Behavior (levels of analysis): 1.) Performance outcome 2.) Describing the movement 3.) Measuring activity of the CNS 1.) Performance outcome a. Performer who can accomplish an action in a given time is more efficient b. Measure of time and speed associated with a specific outcome i. Reaction time (RT) 1. The interval btw the onset of a signal (stimulus) and the initiation of a response (reaction time is different from movement time- time it takes to move) 2. Reaction time task: a. Simple reaction time (SRT) b. Choice Reaction time (CRT) c. Discriminant reaction time (DRT) (go, no-go paradigm) Reaction Time Is the interval btw the “go signal” and the movement starts Btw warning sign and “go signal” is the fore period Btw the “go signal and movement start is the reaction time Btw the movement starts and movement ends is the movement time Reaction Time Tests 1SR map** (one stimulus and one reaction) – all about stimulus reaction (doesn’t envolve high level sensory motor processing**) good reaction is about 200ms Choice reaction stimulus (multiple stimulus each linked to independent reactors)- has sensory processing, and what stimulus has come on, and program response based on key the light is yoked to) – this task involves high level sensory motor processing 3SR map good is about 500ms Discriminant RT (only respond when red light comes on)- involves INHABITION of a response* (high level function that is mediated by frontal lobes- PRE- frontal lobes) its very hard to preform, this task is sensitive for discovering people with for inhibitory skills Good is about 400 m/s Putting RT to Practice - the international association of athletic Federations (IAAF) criterion for a sprint false start is 100m/s (one-tenth of a second) o is this valid criterion? Kinesiology- February 13/12 (Monday) Topic 6- Information Processing – 3 Stage Approach - Input  The human  output - Simplified info processing approach - Same processing rate is same as computer: the more complex the longer it takes and actual speed of computer influences how fast you can transmit info - BF Skinner- interested in input and output (thought the human part didn’t matter and it was all predetermined called- radical behaviorism) Input  stimulus Identification  Response (multiples responses or neglect response) Response Programming  output -we have 3 serial, and discrete (has to be done one stage at a time) stages* (process similar to computer) Simple RT (stimulus choices-1) (number of responses 1) stages of processing- stimulus detection and response execution) (Hypothetical RT 200) Choice RT (2) (2) (stimulus detection, identification, selection, execution) (285) Go/no-go RT (2) (1) (stimulus detection, identification, execution) (230) Stimulus identification 230-200 = 30ms Response selection 285-230 =55ms 1.) Stimulus Identification Stage a. Signal Detection unit: (takes raw neurological code and moves it somewhere) i. Sensory info attained from external sources is detected and transformed into neurological signals ii. Occurs without conscious awareness (subconscious stage) iii. Low level property (relies on subcortical structures) b. Pattern recognition unit iv. More on this in a bit v. Neurological signals are mapped onto a meaningful event (its NOT subconscious) vi. High level property (top down cortical control- involves things like frontal lobe) vii. You can train it (ex. football- study film quarterback, recognize patterns) - Training pattern recognition to optimize performance is temporally demanding sprits and occupations (ex. chess master vs. amateurs, pattern recognition) - 10 years or 10,000 hrs of practice to become an “expert”.. DELIBERATE practice) - month of birth determines whether you can make it to a high level of expertise Signal Detection Theory: Response: YES Response: NO Stimulus: present Hit Miss Stimulus: Absent False Alarm Correct Rejection Signal Detection Theory Criterion: a persons bias (center middle line)- everything to the left is “no” region and right is “yes region” that independent of the actual noise and sensory Sensory continuum is horizontal line (Gama sign) Using signal-detached theory to model changes in serial learning of radiological interpretation Pattern recognition: - Extracting patterns or feature from environmental stimuli for use in latter stages of info processing - Can we a natural or trained phenomenon - deGroot 1946- Chess players (see chess board- recreate chess board- grand masters are better) o Grand Masters vs. Novices - Chase and Simon 1973 o Added random condition (all scattered random around chess board not actually where they would be in a game. So if its just random master players are all the same as the novices) Learning Acts on Distinct Processes for Visual Form Perceptions in the Human Brain - Experiment: people asked to identify btw radial (flying out) or concentric (circular) dots - People get better - LO and IPS are involved in recognition Kinesiology- February 15/12 (Wednesday) -Location is determined by definitive borders (ex. beating heart illusion)** - Reaction time (continued)  Fractionating reaction time (looking at premotor reaction time interval, and Motor reaction time)  1.) Premotor RT o period of time between onset of stimulus and beginning of muscle activity o Measured with EMG (ElectroMyoGraphy: measure electrical activity of muscle) o Measures time-frame required to receive and process information (amount of time to detect stimulus and then plan response based on stimulus) o Measures central processing time, central conduction time (time it takes brain  extra fusel muscle fiber 2.) Motor RT o Period of time between onset of muscle activity and observable movement o Time lag in muscle needed to overcome inertia of limb (electrical mechanical delay**) Example that effects premotor- Alzheimer's Example that effects motor RT- people with low back pain, MS DIAGRAM- IN SLIDESHOW- Fractionation of Reaction Time 80% is PM-RT 20% is M-RT practiced limbs have FAST motor times (ex. arms/hands)- 20% unpracticed limbs (ex. big toe that doesn’t move much)- 30% Movement 1.) Performance outcome 2.) Describing the movement 3.) Measuring activity of the CNS Performance Outcome B.) Measures of Time and Speed: performer who can accomplish an action in a given time is more efficient a.) Movement time (MT): the interval between the initiation of a response (end of motor RT) to the completion of a movement (how long it takes to COMPLETE the movement) b.) Total response time (TRT): RT + MT (VERY important to distinguish btw RT and MT)** Describing the Movement A.) Qualitative Description - Branch of mechanics describing “pure” motion - How far, how fast a. Verbal description, time-lapse photography b. Movement Kinematics i. Displacement: special position of effector (ie. arm) during movement ii. Velocity: rate of change of an objects position with respect to time iii. Acceleration (change in velocity of an object (ie. arm) during movement Opto-electric Devices Reproduction of Human Movement - ex. use for video games- track someone’s movement to use in the gaming technology Kinematics of a Reacting Movement - Human (when they make movements) they are bell shaped velocity movement - THIS is what gives us smooth movement (but people without have JERKY movement) - Peak velocity increases as a function of displacement (the further you move the higher the velocity- its another invariant characteristic of human movement***) - Timing with peak deceleration- (__________________________________________________________________________) MR- has lesion involving right parietal lobe Has Ideal motor apraxia Bagel cutting movement- kinematic approach Velocity of elbow should match velocity of wrist BUT with apraxia its all over the stops them from preforming a task Measuring CNS Activity a. Electromyography i. Electrical activity associated with muscle contraction ii. Provides info regarding the temporal and intensity characteristics of the movement (something important to do with extra fusel muscle fibers***) iii. Reciprocal innervation is being demonstrated in picture (when triceps in on biceps is off, and vise versa) iv. Tonic Activation: what EMG looks like if you electrically stimulate the muscle (artificial way to get a muscle to contract)- electrical stimulation causes all the fibers to fire AT THE SAME TIME which makes it forceful - SYNCRINIS v. Phasic Activation: EMG looks like for voluntary contraction (you choose to make a movement) – ASYNCRINIS Kinesiology- February 16/12 (Friday) - Get involved in SPECIFIC volunteer activities, with leadership role, and make sure its LONG TERM Visual Field Asymmetry- not in notes - central vs. peripheral vision (central has more) = cortical - retinal ganglia cells (center of eye has LOTS of these but the number of them diminishes as you move out towards peripheral vision) - more neurons in V1 dedicated to center of eye - another asymmetry – o vertical field asymmetry o upper hemi retina (upper part of eye)- has more retinal ganglia cells then lower hemi retina (lower part of eye) o info from lower visual field (ex. typing, writing) gets projected to the upper hemi retina- which is good because most of the things we do are in our lower visual field o lower visual field goes to upper hemi retina and upper visual field goes to lower hemi retina************ o when target fell in lower visual field then participants were much more faster and accurate o (reaching and fixation experiment) o connections go to ____ then PPC (posterior parietal cortex- its where we use VISION TO CONTROL ACTION* o because of this asymmetry we get: when we work in lower visual field we can do things faster o when you make cognitive decisions most people look up and that in your upper visual field goes to lower hemi retnal , V1, then temporal lobe (specifically the lateral occipital cortex (LOC)********- part involved in cognitive operations) o Lower visual field neurons tend to project to LOC and lower visual field neurons usually go to PPC o Consciousness and vision: if you have lesions to V1 cortical blind- eyes work fine but they can’t see anything it’s a problem with brain processing o IN visual system there is a clear difference between vision (conscious awareness ) and vision for action (ex. cortical blind patients can point to dots even though they can’t see them) Tonic Activation (Syncrinis Activation) - Its artificial - what EMG looks like if you electrically stimulate the muscle - you can get tonic activation by stimulating neurons or muscle Phasic Activation (Asyncrinis Activation) - what EMG looks like for voluntary contraction - its because of asyncranized firing of neurons Clasp-Knife Rigidity or Spasticity - spastic movement disorder Co-contraction injury- with upper motor neuron Gain back reciprocal inhibition (if you have co-contraction then you can’t regain reciprocal inhibition) 3. Describing the movement A.) Measures of Brain Activity - provide measure of when and what brain regions activate during movement I.) Electroencephalography (EEG- provides millisecond to millisecond activation, provides good temporal resolution but not good spacial resolution) and Magnetroencephalography (MEG) structural MRI is the structural image fMRI (is structure + function**) Measures of Brian Activity (continued) II.) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and functional Magnetic resonance Imaging (fMRI) - fMRI has bad temporal resolution (only takes photo every 5 milliseconds so there are times when you don’t know what going on inside the brain) PET- used to understand neuron degenerative diseases fMRI- super powerful magnet Kinesiology- Feb 27/12 (Monday) TMS (Trans cranial Magnetic Stimulation) 2 types of TMS - rTMS (repetitive TMS) - or just plain TMS function: creates virtual lesion (mimics someone with a stoke), used to find functional significance of various parts of the brain** - it fires electricity into the brain rTMS: instead of a single pulse into the brain you get a number of pulses. Used to increase or decrease cortical activity * TMS- safe technique, no long lasting impairment but its still an emergent technology, don’t know LONG term impact because its only been introduced in the last 6 years Fadiga et al. (1998) – TMS: corticospinal activity with high temporal sensitivity – excitation/inhibition in the corticospinal tract at the moment of simulation – MEPs of muscle assessed to examine the ‘release’ of action -used just thinking about an activity to see if it produced the same channels as actually doing the activity -they measures a MET (motor evoked potential*) measure in muscle of interest - for this experiment they just elbow extension Had visual imagery task ((shrinking and expanding bar on computer screen) and motor imagery task (participants THOUGHT about producing this task) - measure MET’s in elbow extensor muscle Results: muscle not moving (no MET elicited) but in Motor imagery task there was a large MET TMS overrides brain and allows motor command to go down spine and makes muscle twitch (when TMS is applied to brain during motor imagery) - same neural areas that work with actually performing a task are the same as thinking about it new study: acquired vs. congenital (born with) blindness rTMS applied to V1** -looked at sensations in fingers (parastisia- pins and needles) - people with developed blindness had LOW levels of parastisia while acquired blindness had HIGH levels - shows that brain has completely reorganized (visual brain region is now touch brain region) Person with stroke - turn down activation in unaffected hemisphere and turn up activation in affected hemisphere (allows person to gain back equilibrium) - apply low frequency rTMS to unaffected hemisphere (1Hz- 1 stimulus per second***) apply 5HZ** to affected hemisphere (1 stimulus per 200ms**) rTMS- leads to direct and long-lasting motor benefit (helps people preform motor skills better after a stroke) youtube.com/watch?v=NYAfmyMZe5g- My Brilliant Brian: Make me a genius Visual Neglect: with TMS treatment B-after treatment (15 days after a treatment) Kinesiology- Feb. 29/12 (Wednesday) Stimulus Response Alternatives (SRA) – increasing the number of alternatives relevant to a response increase the time required to …. - Reaction time goes up as SRA goes up - Hicks law: o Task: choice reaction time task o Results: RT increases every time the S-RA doubled  thus relationship between choice RT and the logarithm of S-RA is linear  Equation is Y= a + b[Log-base2- (N)]  b is slope: change in reaction time associated with a 1 unit change of bits in information  log-base2 (N) is a bit of information  N= # of SRA  A bit is defined as the amount of info required ot reduce uncertainty by half  How many decisions in each case  Box example (first box – process 2 bits of information “dividing uncertainty by half 2power of 2) (box 2- process 3 bits of information 2 power of 3) if there are 16 SRA then its 4 bits of info (won’t give us fractions) *** will be question on exam  Choice RT= 212 + (153(3)) (3- meaning 8 SRA) = 671** question on exam  Used in designing human- machine interface (ergonomics) Stimulus Response Compatibility - extent to which stimulus and response are associated in a natural way - subjects are faster and make fewer errors for a spatially compatible (A) as opposed to an incompatible B environment - ex. inside nuclear power plant Stimulus Response Compatibility cont’d Word –Color Compatibility (Stroop Effect) - incompatible mapping between work meaning and ink its printed in - going to have longer reaction time or you make an error (one or the other or both)** Kinesiology- March 3/12 (Friday) PPC- sensory to motor interface (where you look- visually guided actions) Case study JJ- (bilateral post- parietal lesions) - magnetic-reaching impairments - grab one block with both hands  where he was looking - attention and movement rely on similar neural systems** antisecade- look away from flashed object (hard task to preform). Inhabit the stimulus driven response. Takes 100m/s longer. prosecade- MOST learned task that humans preform- over learned. Look directly at flashed object Overlab- fixation cross always there Gap- fixation cross disappears before flash comes on  faster but more prone to errors* Omni- pause neurons- prevents you from making seceded eye movements Prosecade – direct pathway to movement (short pathway) Antisecade- 1.) Response suppression (inhibit secede) 2.) requires separate pathway Vector-invension + response suppression is what takes so long Frontal cortex  used for antisecade Stimulus Response Compatibility (cont’d) - Word-Color Compatibility (Stroop Effect): Incompatible mapping between word meaning and a printed word color increased RT and errors C. Response Programming Stage: • Following response selection the action must be translated into appropriate muscular signals to achieve task goals Henry and Rogers (1960) - how complexity of response influences how quickly you can control a movement – Stimulus and response altern
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