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Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40 LECTURE 1 – January 9, 2013 What is Psycho-Motor Learning? Topic #1 - Plasticity - Optogenetics  The ability to acquire and learn new skills  Use of light to activate specific neurons  CNS lays down new neuro-connections to fire  Neurons fire to specific orientations of - Extrafusal muscle fibres** light  Power producing muscle fibres  Pull on the bone causing you to abduct etc. - Intrafusal muscle fibres**  Proprioceptor – tells you where your limb is in respect to your body  Designed to detect a stretch in a muscle - Motor Learning  A set of internal processes associated with practice or experience leading to a relatively permanent gain in performance capability  Performance effect (short-term) vs. learning benefit (relatively permanent change in performance)  Techniques induce learning effect which is how CNS instills new info - Motor Control  An area of study dealing with the understanding of the neural, physical, cognitive, and behavioural aspects of movement  How the brain develops motor programs and sends it to extrafusal muscle fibres Historical Development of Motor Learning/Control Psychology: most important Shifferen: 1. The brain as a computer: the serial nature of information processing 2. Memory for different tasks: motor tasks versus cognitive tasks (ie. motor vs. cognitive tasks)  ST memory system (semantic; factual) & LT memory system high up in cortical structure Theory that we have a short-term memory system, to be shifted into long term  Short term memory system contributes to our learning skills Human Engineering 1. Arthur Melton  Pilots can be selected based on specific individual abilities  COMPLETELY WRONG; Ability to performance on simply battery test no correlation to fighter pilots  Precursor for specific occupation 2. Paul Fitts**  Wanted to know why there were so many plane crashes Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40  Too many air plane accidents – result of faulty human/machine interface  Forefather of the field of ergonomics  How we process information influences our interactions with machines and computers  Spatial incompatibility mapping – processing warning light A and warning light B on top of each other; confusing  change to intuitive label to it is spatially compatible  How we process info influences our interactions with machines and computer Neuroscience Reciprocal innervation - First understood by C.S Sherrington - Suppresses activity of an antagonistic muscle when agonist is active - Explains phenomenon such as walking and reaching - Final common path at the spinal cord producing muscular contraction - Co-contraction – both agonist and antagonist muscles flex Reciprocal innervation/inhibition  Damaged cortical area (FMRI)  class of movement; relate structures with functions Physical Education Franklin M. Henry**  Examined whole/gross body movements and developed experimental approaches to understanding how we “learn” to produce complex movements Divisions of The Nervous System - CNS – Brain & Spinal Cord* - Soma-ic Division – Intrafusal muscle fibres allow for connectivity with the CNS (ie. neurons within spinal cord) Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40 Hierarchical Organization of the CNS The Hierarchy* - Think of the Cerebral Cortex as the “big boss”, it tells everyone else what to do and when to do it - Think of the thalamus, basal ganglia, pons and cerebellum as being second in command (Subcortical structures) - The brainstem is third in Classic view – NOT command (relay station & contemporary * modifies it) - The spinal cord is a “slave” system to all the above. Defects in Cerebral Cortex - Stroke: fine movements are impaired if there is damage in the cerebral cortex  Lesion in primary motor cortex (cerebral cortex)  Ie. No precision grip, uses power grip - Locked-In Syndrome: descending signals cannot travel down the spinal cord – they are “locked in”  Lesion in brain stem  Ie. Patient is unable to respond to ANY stimuli – appeared paralyzed/clinically brain dead  Only communication is via blinking Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) “Animal electricity” - How muscles contract - Generating static electricity – the frogs Heinlein’s twitched when he touched the frog with the electric probe - Galvani found out that the ability of muscles to move is from bioelectric signals Neuron – Building Block of the CNS - What happens in neurons as a function of learning? - Generating new neurons/new neural pathways (plasticity) Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40 - This allows you to increase the number of dendritic branches & axonal branching - Repeated exposures to a task – neurons become more sophisticated and have less trouble communicating - The myelin Sheath allows for efficient neural conduction/communication  Different neurons have different thicknesses of myelin sheath – which determines how quickly they are able to work Neurons and the Neuromuscular System - This is a motor unit – a single alpha motor neuron and all the muscle fibres it innervates  Alpha motor neural innervates with extrafusal muscle fibres (allow your limbs to move) - Neurons can directly communicate with cerebral cortex neuron Speed of Nerve Conduction RT History - Helmholtz (1850’s)  Interested in speed of nerve conduction  Used isolated muscle and motor nerves in a frog  Measured time between electrical stimulation and muscle contractions  Electrical stimuli close to cell body and measure how quickly it conducted & then changed stimuli location  Estimated speed of human nerve conduction  Measured reaction time in response to stimulus to two points (ie. foot, thigh)  Nerve conduction velocity very fast (35-60m/s)  That speed is about 1/10 the speed of sound (speed of sound = 1238km/h) Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40 - Disease of the Neuron 1. Disease of the nerve influences amplitude of nerve conduction a. Ie. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or more commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig’s Disease (proposed that Lou Gehrig may not have had ALS) b. Difficulty conducting the amplitude of neural conduction c. People will Lou Gehrig’s cannot conduct signals to muscles b/c of deterioration 2. Disease of the myelin influences conduction speed a. Ie. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) b. Destroys the myelin in patches along the CNS c. Has a systemic impact d. In MS you can see in an MRI that the neurons are becoming de-myelinated in the cerebral cortex Many Different Types of Neurons 1. Motor (efferent) neurons a. Transmits motor command down the spinal cord b. Any descending information is referred to as efferent 2. Sensory (afferent) neurons a. Transmits signals to, and up the spinal cord b. Transmit signs up the spinal cord to cortical and subcortical structures - Alpha motor neuron damage can be referred to as a lower motor neuron disease (they are interchangeable) - An upper motor neuron disease arises directly from neurons in cerebral cortex The Cerebral Cortex/Cerebrum More information @ Phrenology and Modern Neuroscience - Phrenology: different parts of the brain are directly related to different characteristics (such as courage, prudence, etc.)  From subjective observations on how someone would perform after being injured - FMRI – is structure & function (ie. you can see which neurons are firing during a specific action) Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40 CORTICAL STRUCTURES Occipital Lobe: - Center of our visual perception - Contains the Primary Visual Cortex (V1) & secondary visual areas - V1  Cortical magnification  Orientation, spatial frequency, colour  Lesions to V1 develop disorder called cortical blindness (unable to perceive visual stimuli)  Can use vision to navigate, but cannot identify objects - V2  Responsible for binocular visual  Neurons called binocular disparity neurons – perceive depth) - V3D  Visual information that passes through here, originates in V1 to the parietal cortex  This is the pathway that supports vision for action - V3V  Originates in V1 through V3, which when ships information to the temporal lobe  Pathway for perceptions - V4:  Works in conjunction with V1  Orientations and size properties of an objects  Identify simple geometric shapes  Someone with a lesion may not be able to differentiate between triangle/square V5 (area MT):  Important for movement  Uses visual information to detect motion – Motion detection system *More neurons in our V1 devoted to our central vision than that of the peripheral vision *Not an even distribution of neurons, symmetrical representation (cortical magnification) LECTURE 3 – January 14, 2013 David Hubel: Nobel Laureate & Canadian & from Windsor - Single cell recording of V1 in the a wake cat - Binocular cells in V1 - Blobs = colour ensembles in cylindrical shapes - Interblobs = orientation sensitive - Patch on one eye – the kitten doesn’t recognize binocular cues. - Discovered developmental period for binocular disparity neurons Parietal Lobe: - Contains primary somatosensory cortex (S1) – senses; smell, touch, etc. - Responsible for the planning and control of movement (very pivotal feature) - Visuospatial skills Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40 - Interface between sensory and motor commands - Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL) – critical for planning a movement - Superior Parietal Lobe (SPL) – control of action (online/feedback control of action)  Gets feedback from environment to ensure you have a successful response Lesions to…  IPL – have difficultly planning a movement  SPL – can plan a movement but cannot locate an object (no feedback)  Visual Spatial Neglect (Blind sight):  Caused by lesions in the right parietal cortex  Is a high level disorder  Not anything to do with basic processing  Unable to take all information from a whole scene to produce a single image  They neglect their impaired visual field (they are not attending to it)  In this case, the patient neglects their left side  When patients are coping photos they don’t pay attention to a certain side, later when told to look at the photo they notice they missed half the picture  PEGGY: what she draws is different than what her brain sees her drawing – her brain fills the whole picture in  TREATMENT: Prism Goggles – shifts your vision to your left visual field (Transient – only lasts for a couple hours) LECTURE 4 – January 16, 2013 Anterior Interparietal Region (AIP): - Provides movement system with critical information to support grasping an object Parietal Occipital Area (PO): - Controls the transport phase of a movement (ie. getting limb from point A to point B) Temporal Lobe: - Function in visual object recognition - Contains primary auditory cortex (left hemisphere) - Location of the hippocampus (memory and learning) - Visual & Haptic information (touch information) – ability to recognize things - Hippocampus (in conjunction with the temporal lobe) plays a critical role in the formation of new explicit memories - People with damage to hippocampus completely lose their ability to form new LT memories  Still have ability to learn new motor skills (cerebellum) Frontal Lobe: Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40 - Functions in working memory (short-term) - Contains primary and secondary motor areas (movement)  Primary Motor Area: o Primary Motor Cortex (M1) – final common pathway to action (sends motor commands into spinal cord and allows you to move)  Secondary Motor Area: o Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) o Premotor Area (PM) - Frontal lobe is “who we are” – responsible for self awareness, personality & conscience - Damage to frontal lobe influences a change in personality SUBCORTICAL STRUCTURES Brain Stem: - Role in basic attention, arousal, and consciousness. All information to and from our body passes through the brain stem on the way to or from the brain. - Involved in automatic function (ie. breathing, etc.) - Structures on brain stem to control movement:  Superior Colliculus (SC) o Saccade: goal directed eye movement Cerebellum: - Involved in coordination of voluntary motor movement, balance and equilibrium and muscle tone - Involved in forming implicit memory (ability to remember how to perform a motor skill) - Critically involved with timing for movement of muscles  Decide when muscles should be active or inactive - Lesions to the cerebellum often lead to cerebellar ataxia  Movement deficit (cerebellar gait) – uncoordinated movements & no timing of movements - Stuttering – soft deficit to the cerebellum Basal Ganglia: - Group of varied origin nuclei connected to thalamus and cerebral cortex - Play an important role in excitation of M1 neurons - If primary motor cortex can become active, you are able to move and vice versa  If basal ganglia is inactive, M1 can not be activated  trouble moving  It sends inhibitory signals to the thalamus & excitatory to cortex  You need that connection (Parkinson’s it doesn’t excite) Direct Pathway  - Cortex  Striatum  Globas palius & S nigra  thalamus  cortex - Parkinson’s disease – most common basal ganglion deficit  Extreme difficulty initiating movement Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40  Very slow movement  Tremor  Parkinson’s gait – shuffling LECTURE 6 – January 23, 2013 Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (football players) - Plaque builds up in the subcortical structures - Happens most frequently in football players - Risk of Alzheimer’s disease The Human Homunculus - Discovered by Penfield, specific regions of M1 - Site of certain regions are symmetrically related (ie. fingers vs. toes) because of usage - “Cortical Magnification” for neurons responsible for hand movements (ie. feet) - Face is overrepresented for speech production and showing emotion Georgopoulos - Monkey neurophysiologist - Monitored the activation of neurons while performing a task - Each sphere color represented different fingers; the site of sphere represents intensity of activation  Overlap of neurons receptors – they intermingle with each other and are not exactly bordered - Probe on M1  Thought M1 was final pathway to action – just a relay system  Raster Plot – depicts the activation of a single neuron over time  Found that neurons on M1 is tuned to the direction of the response - Code for movement of direction  Potential application of neuro-prosthetics Prolonged M1 Electrical Stimulation - Long burnt electrical stimulus to M1, physically move limb into a posture  Would always move hand to mouth when that specific region was stimulated - Prior to monkey receiving stimulation the monkey’s arm was positioned in a specific orientation - This suggested that there are sophisticated actions that are maintained within M1 Corticomotorneuronal Activity (movement specific) - Precision grip (thumb & forefinger) - VERY sophisticated and complex action - Power grip is not as difficult - A specific neuron would fire with the precision grip, but NOT with the power grip Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40 - This suggests that there are certain neurons that are specifically programed for sophisticated movements Thalidomide & Developmental Dysmelia Dysmelia – Incomplete development  Caused by the drug Thalidomide given to pregnant women to treat morning sickness  Impact of cortical reorganization - The brain changes such that neural representations are based on how complex the movements are  Ie. People with Dysmelia have a smaller representation of their hand because they have less digits  Gives evidence to brain plasticity  Shows that par of the brain is capable of recovery Jackson - British physician - Wife had epilepsy - Progresses in a systematic way Penfield - Neuroscientist that dealt with epilepsy - Chronic electrical stimulation to mimic epilepsy in a rat (kindling) - M1 changes significantly when it is kindled compared to the control - The M1 representation is greatly expanded after the kindling - The human homunculus is based on Penfield’s work - Found out the epileptic brain is organized differently LECTURE 7 – January 25, 2013 Phantom Limbs: - After amputation of a limb, region for mouth neurons moved over onto region for thumb - On the normal human homunculus the thumb is directly above the forehead  In the case of an amputee their face representation is flipped 180 degrees  In the video, when the man’s face was stroked (cheek) he could feel a stroke against his phantom hand  His brain had re-mapped itself, so his face was taking over the region for his hand  The neurons of the face had taken over the neural connections for his hand  Visual feedback of the phantom limb can relieve phantom limb pain (illusory/feedback) – using mirrors Monkey See Monkey Do - Neurons in the frontal lobe that are classified as mirror-neurons - Mirror-neurons support our ability to learn through observation  Two week old monkey is “mirroring” the experimenter Kinesiology 1080B – HSB 40  We have brain circuitry that allows us to copy an action done by someone else Rizzolatti et al. (1986) - Monkey neuroscientist - Every time Rizzolatti reached out for food, he noticed the monkey’s neuron firing - Neuron is active when the monkey physically moves, but is also active watching a monkey move, as well as, watching a human move - Mirror neuron firing helps you learn more efficiently and faster - People with downs syndrome are good at learning new motor skills visually - Some evidence that the mirror neurons are more expansive - Someone with Autism – learn better verbally LECTURE 8 – January 28, 2013 Supplemen
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