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Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

Kin – March 4, 2013 Describing Movement A. Measures of Brain Activity  Provide measures of when and what brain regions activate during movement I. Electroencephalography (EEG) & Magnetoencephalography (MEG) - Kind of similar - Measure fast electro-chemical processes in the brain - They detect when axon is fired (neuron activation) - Provide exceptional temporal resolution (millisecond level) - See the parts of the brain that is active while an individual performs a task - Very poor spatial resolution is a limitation of these two techniques; Provides a crude understanding of what part of the brain is active but not precise area of the brain - The brighter the area, the greater the activation - Timing issue, use EEG or MEG MRI vs. fMRI  MRI  provides structural scan  fMRI  Provides an integration of structure and function; it will provide images of what is active via very high spatial resolution; these are very expensive and it has very poor temporal resolution  It takes pictures between 5 to 10 seconds but you don’t know what happens in between those time periods  Due to this limitation, it has poor temporal resolution Measures of Brain Activity (Continued)  II. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)  fMRI  good spatial resolution; precise region of brain that is active when you are doing a motor or cognitive task  PET  radioisotope molecule gets injected to your blood molecules and then as your brain requires oxygen, the blood molecules attached with that radioisotope goes to the brain  The PET scan picks that up; looks at metabolism in the brain  PET is used for diagnosis now and not so much in the theoretical field; due to poor spatial resolution Shows general metabolic processes in an healthy individual (left side)  The right pic is the brain of alzemier’s disease  There is a significant reduction in metabolic processes in the alzemier’s disease individual  Early use of MRI: lots of cases of patients died in the board because metal would get sucked in an harm the patients TMS  Transcranial magnetic stimulation  Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation  TMS  you can send a signal pulse into the cortex causing random activation associated neurons that the pulse is going to contact: virtual lesion that last for a couple of minutes  Talking gets interrupted due to left hemisphere (coiled)  Singing does not get affected because it is in the right hemisphere and it is not coiled  When someone is depressed, by using this technique you can increase the activity of the hemisphere to alleviate some of the symptoms related to depression  The first study of TMS (Fadiga et al. 1998) was done to measure excitability associated with motor imagery (corticospinal activity with high temporal sensitivity)  Combine TMS with EMG in order to measure muscle activation  Excitation/inhibition in the corticospinal tract at the moment of stimulation  MEPs of muscle assessed to examine the ‘release’ of action  MEP  motor evote potential  The task was to
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