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Western University
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

Kin 1080 – Mar. 8, 2013  Marchi et al. (2013): Consequences of repeated blood-brain barrier disruption in football players  There is a disruption in the blood-brain barrier due to the sub-concussion leading to a surge in S100B protein and an adverse (preventing) immune response in the brain  An individual with increased S100B levels has shown structural changes through the diffusion tensor imagery  This protein causes an autoimmune response in the body (very bad)  the protein attacks the cortex leading to deterioration of the cortical structures  Possibly leads to a long-term consequence of declination of cognitive function in the athlete  There is now a very simple blood test to determine the long term risk  Due to the heading the soccer ball, women’s soccer had the highest incidence of concussion (Brain scans taken through DTI  Diffusion Tensor Imaging)  DTI technique is relatively new and it evaluates brain structure  It provides a measure of axon connectivity within the brain  showing the areas of the cortex that are related to the other areas of the cortex  When an individual gets a concussion, the shearing forces causes tears in these axon connections  Individuals who had high levels of S100B protein levels had reduced axonal connections  The DTI scans were done on athletes prior, during and post-season  In conclusion, a blood test along with a DTI scan provides viable information about the brain’s structural integrity The simplified information-processing model Input  The human (Brain)  Output - Skinner’s Theory - Stimulus input leads to performance output (behaviouristic approach) 3-Stage Model of Information Processing Input  Stimulus Identification  Response Selection  Response Programming  Output  All reaction times (simple, choice, discriminant) require a stimulus reaction time  We process information similar to a computer  Stages of information processing are serial and discrete  These means that these stages are unable to happen simultaneously (or in parallel)  Each stage needs to happen entirely before the next stage can begin A, Stimulus Identification Stage: 1) Stimulus Detection  The sensory information attained from external source is detected and transformation into neurological information
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