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Model of Information Processing

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Western University
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

Designed “Thinking Cap” Based on rTMS technique: 1 Hertz/Sec on left hemisphere - turning off left processes  Turns on right hemisphere which can spot details  Magnetic pulses for 15 minutes  Artificially turn on hidden potential by turning off certain parts of the brain Includes guessing number of dots, drawing a horse and saying a phrase with an extra “the” in it  After stimulation: can spot the double “the”  Before stimulation: got 2/20, after got 8/20  Found improvement in 40% of subjects Information-Processing Model Simplified Skinner proposed behavioristic approach – inputs and outputs are the only thing that matter Input  the human brain  output  We use a cognitive processing approach – anti skinner approach 3-Stage Model of Information Processing Input  Stimulus Identification  response selection  response programming  output  We process information similar to a computer  Each stage is performed in a serial and discrete fashion  These things cannot happen in parallel (simultaneously) Stimulus Identification Stimulus Detection: Basic Sensory structures becoming active in presence of stimulus  Sensory information attained from external sources (visual, tactile, auditory, etc.) is detected and transformed into neurological signals  Raw neurological codes are mapped onto a meaning  Eg. This baseball is approaching my face at a high rate of speed (PR stage) Happens below level of consciousness – no explicit control over it  Once mapped onto something meaningful (pattern recognition stage) you can become aware of it and illicit response, but at this initial stage you are not aware Pattern Recognition: More Cognitive Extracting patterns or features from the environmental stimuli for use in latter stages of information processing  Can be a natural or trained phenomenon; if practiced you can get better  Training pattern recognition can optimize performance in temporally demanding sports and occupations  Example: football quarterback spends a lot of time watching game, to recognize patterns in environment, so he can make correct decisions in relation to these patterns  Appropriate pattern recognition and response Athletes who partake in film studies have better abilities to process features This started with… Simon and Chase Study - Chess Interested in pattern recognition and memory capabilities in 3 groups  3 groups: Don’t play chess much, chess players and chess masters  Showed chess pieces on chess board for 3 seconds  Then asked to recall where all the chess pieces were and put them on a board A: some experience B: no experience M: experts  Each performed 7 trails  Higher the value, better done on a task 2 conditions 1. Real Game Situation: Things that could happen in an actual game rd  After 4 trial the chess masters were perfect at doing the task  Experts better at extracting appropriate pattern recognition Do they just have better memory? 2. Random game: chess pieces could not be there in real game  Chess masters performed worse than other two groups in this condition Specificity in recall and recognition that is specific to real game situation  Important to understanding pattern recognition  Lead to development of field of study called Expertise Expertise Field of study that looks at why certain individuals reach certain level of amazing performance Anders Erikson studied every level of occupation  Example: Steve Nash – point guard for Lakers. After practice was over, Nash would practice dribbling skills and drills that are necessary to reach high level of performance Those individuals with high level of expertise have dedicated 10 years and or 10 000 hours of deliberate practice to their specific domain  Deliberate practice is cognitively demanding and full of effort – not a lot of fun but necessary  Says that anybody can reach an expertise of anything with 10 years/10 000 hours of this practice Boutis et al. 2010 Adv in Health Sci Ed Involves medical students and physicians – people on different levels of expertise with time spent on particular domain  Showed them X-rays of ankle  Asked to give diagnosis based on x-ray Results: # of trails + correctness  Very first trial – board certified radiologists made accurate diagnosis  Did this very quickly – immediately knew appropriate diagnosis while medical student was spending a lot of time on analysis  Medical students did not do very good job on diagnosis  Only radiologists have level of expertise to make correct diagnosis – less that that (10 years of experience) may lead to errors Starks Month Asymmetries Starks studied whether birth month had effect on ability to obtain expertise st th  Broke months into quartiles – January to March = 1 , November to December = 4 , etc. Example: Starks originally specifically studied hockey players  looked at house league all the way to NHL Soccer Study:  Had many participants of European football players, presents asymmetry  ability of athletes increased from bottom to top note: N = sample size (# of participants in each 6 leagues)  majority was in the mass Basque population Results:  50% of atndetes in highest expertise were born in the 1st quartile  23% in 2 quartile  Only 12% were born in the 4 quartile  Proportion in lower levels were about the same nd Individuals born in the first quartile (and somewhat the 2 ) are over represented in elite athletic leagues  Found in almost every single sport – soccer, hockey, North American football, basketball, field hockey Explanations:  maturation difference in January and December children – one is almost a year older  kids of first quarter who are bigger and stronger because of their advantage of age are going to receive better coaching and attention and as a result will be able to devote the necessary practice needed to attain expertise (also involves self-esteem and self-efficacy) Information-Processing Model Continued B. Response Selection Stage  Once stimulus is identified, the appropriate action must be selected  Takes place in serial and discrete stages – once you identify the stimulus, then you select response appropriate  Most well studied stage Factors Influencing Response Selection 1. Number of S-R (Stimulus Response) Alternatives 2. Spatial or Cognitive Compatibility Stimulus Response (S-R) Alternatives Increasing the number of alternatives relevant to a response increases the time required to process and select an appropriate response Looking at the speed of information processing within response selection stage Hick and Hymen  Looking at how the number of S-R alternatives influences reaction time  choice reaction tim
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