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Kinesiology 1080A/B

Lecture NotesMarchi et al 2013 Consequences of repeated bloodbrain barrier disruption in football players PloS ONE 5 football teams and filmed football games university level and tracked the number of head hits against all the athletes for one seasonEveryone afterward was concussion free but had taken several head hitsMeasured protein level in the blood of the athletes S100BBloodbrain barrier disruption from subconcussion leads to surge of S100B protein and an adverse immune response in the brainIndividuals with increased S100B levels showed structural changes via diffusion tensor imagery DTICan cause autoimmune response with trauma to bloodbrain barrier which might lead to cognitive defectAble to link this to structural deterioration in the brain DTIbrain structureDTI provides a measure of axon connectivity within the brainPeople with concussions had less axon connections Womens soccer have the highest amount of concussions due to heading a soccer ball Information ProcessingThe simplified informationprocessing model Cognitive Information Processing ApproachStimulus IdentificationResponse SelectionResponse ProgrammingProposes that each stage is performed in a serial and discrete fashion can not occur in parallel or simultaneously Stimulus Identification Stimulus Detection o Sensory information attained from external sources is detected and transformed into neurological signals o Neurological signals are mapped onto a meaningful event o Happens below the level of our consciousness no explicit control o Ex This baseball is approaching my face at a high rate of speed Pattern Recognition o Trainable stage o Extracting patterns or features from environmental stimuli for use in latter stages of information processing o Can be a natural or trained phenomenon Training pattern recognition can optimize performance in temporally demanding sports and occupationsTraining for pattern recognition can enhance game day or onfield decisions and performanceSimon and Chase Study3 groups o People who dont play chess o People who occasionally play chess o Chess mastersStudied pattern recognition in the 3 groupsReal Game o Showed real game situation for 3 seconds and were then asked to recall where all the chess pieces were tho Experts performed at a ceiling level of performance after the 4 trial were better at recalling and extracting appropriate pattern recognitionRandom Game o Chess masters actually performed worse than the other two groups o Recall accuracy of chess masters is specific to their area of expertise ie a real game situationLed the way for the field of study called ExpertiseExpertise Proposed by Anders EricssonField of study dealing with why certain individuals reach a certain level of expertiseStudy every high level of occupationFound that those who have reached a high level of expertise have dedicated 10 years andor 10 000 hours of deliberate practice to their specific domain deliberate cognitively demanding and effortful Study involving medical students and physicians o Showed xrays of the ankle and asked to make a diagnosis tho One group was 4 year medical student
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