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Department
Kinesiology
Course
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Professor
Matthew Heath
Semester
Winter

Description
LectureNotesMarchietal2013ConsequencesofrepeatedbloodbrainbarrierdisruptioninfootballplayersPloSONE5footballteamsandfilmedfootballgamesuniversitylevelandtrackedthenumberofheadhitsagainstalltheathletesforoneseasonEveryoneafterwardwasconcussionfreebuthadtakenseveralheadhitsMeasuredproteinlevelinthebloodoftheathletesS100BBloodbrainbarrierdisruptionfromsubconcussionleadstosurgeofS100BproteinandanadverseimmuneresponseinthebrainIndividualswithincreasedS100BlevelsshowedstructuralchangesviadiffusiontensorimageryDTICancauseautoimmuneresponsewithtraumatobloodbrainbarrierwhichmightleadtocognitivedefectAbletolinkthistostructuraldeteriorationinthebrainDTIbrainstructureDTIprovidesameasureofaxonconnectivitywithinthebrainPeoplewithconcussionshadlessaxonconnectionsWomenssoccerhavethehighestamountofconcussionsduetoheadingasoccerballInformationProcessingThesimplifiedinformationprocessingmodelCognitiveInformationProcessingApproachStimulusIdentificationResponseSelectionResponseProgrammingProposesthateachstageisperformedinaserialanddiscretefashioncannotoccurinparallelorsimultaneouslyStimulusIdentificationStimulusDetectionoSensoryinformationattainedfromexternalsourcesisdetectedandtransformedintoneurologicalsignalsoNeurologicalsignalsaremappedontoameaningfuleventoHappensbelowthelevelofourconsciousnessnoexplicitcontroloExThisbaseballisapproachingmyfaceatahighrateofspeedPatternRecognitionoTrainablestageoExtractingpatternsorfeaturesfromenvironmentalstimuliforuseinlatterstagesofinformationprocessingoCanbeanaturalortrainedphenomenonTrainingpatternrecognitioncanoptimizeperformanceintemporallydemandingsportsandoccupationsTrainingforpatternrecognitioncanenhancegamedayoronfielddecisionsandperformanceSimonandChaseStudy3groupsoPeoplewhodontplaychessoPeoplewhooccasionallyplaychessoChessmastersStudiedpatternrecognitioninthe3groupsRealGameoShowedrealgamesituationfor3secondsandwerethenaskedtorecallwhereallthechesspieceswerethoExpertsperformedataceilinglevelofperformanceafterthe4trialwerebetteratrecallingandextractingappropriatepatternrecognitionRandomGameoChessmastersactuallyperformedworsethantheothertwogroupsoRecallaccuracyofchessmastersisspecifictotheirareaofexpertiseiearealgamesituationLedthewayforthefieldofstudycalledExpertiseExpertiseProposedbyAndersEricssonFieldofstudydealingwithwhycertainindividualsreachacertainlevelofexpertiseStudyeveryhighlevelofoccupationFoundthatthosewhohavereachedahighlevelofexpertisehavededicated10yearsandor10000hoursofdeliberatepracticetotheirspecificdomaindeliberatecognitivelydemandingandeffortfulStudyinvolvingmedicalstudentsandphysiciansoShowedxraysoftheankleandaskedtomakeadiagnosisthoOnegroupwas4yearmedicalstudentoAnothergroupwasboardcertifiedradiologistoMedicalstudentsNotverygoodatmakinganappropriatediagnosesandtookawhiletodecideoRadiologistsAlwaysmadeaccuratediagnosesandmadetheminstantlyJanetStarksStudyoAsymmetriesinthemonthofwhichsomeoneisbornandwhetherornotthatmonthhasanyaffectontheirabilitytoattainexpertiseoTookeliteCanadianhockeyplayersandfoundthemonththeywereborninanddividedthatintoquartilesandstudiedtheproportionthatwereplayinginNHLallthewaydowntolesserleaguesoAbilityofathletesinsoccerstudyincreasedfromthebottomtothetopstoAthleteswithhighestexpertise50werebornin1quartilewhileonlyth12werebornin4quartileoEvendistributionforpeopleplayingsoccerforfunstndoIndividualsthatareborninthe1or2quartileareoverrepresentedineliteathleticleaguesfoundinalmosteverysinglesportoPossibilitiesMaturationdifficultiesextraattentionselfesteem6yearoldborninJanuaryisplayinginthesamedivisionassomeoneborninDecemberTheywillbestrongersinceoneyearolderandwillgetextraattentionleadingtomoreselfesteemandultimatelymoreexpertiseResponseSelectionSROncestimulusisidentifiedtheappropriateactionmustbeselectedExTobrakeorswervetoavoidaparkedcar1NumberofStimulusResponseAlternatives2StimulusorCognitiveCompatibilityHicksLaw1952IncreasingthenumberofalternativesrelevanttoaresponseincreasesthetimerequiredtoprocessandselectandappropriateresponseExperimentwithmorechoicesleadtoalongerresponsetimeTaskChoicereactiontimetaskResultsRTincreasedby150mseverytimetheSRalternativesdoubledThusrelationshipbetweenChoiceRTandthelogarithmoftheSRalternativesislinearfunctionofincreasingbitsvsreactiontimeChoiceRTablogNwhereaandbareempiricalconstants2BitsofinformationIndexofdifficultyAsyouincreasebitsyouhavetoprocessmoreandmoreinformationsoitshowsushowmuchinformationisproceedAbitisdefinedastheamountofinformationrequiredtoreduceuncertaintybyhalfNrepresentsStimulusResponseAlternativesThisequationallowsustopredictbehaviourSlopechangeinreactiontimeassociatedwithaoneunitincreaseinbitsofinformation
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