1. CDC estimates between 50,000 and 300,000 concussion in sport each year.
2. Two forms 0f sport concussion
a. Simple –limit players participation during symptomatic period, but no intervention
required during the recovery period – athlete typically returns to play without any
b. Complex – continued symptoms during recovery period (usually associated with
loss of consciousness)
3. In NCCA football an athlete with previous concussion is 5.8 times more likely to sustain
4. Athletes with multiple concussions recover much slower than athletes who have
experienced a single concussion.
5. Athletes with multiple concussions shower poorer memory recall than athletes with a
single concussion when tested two days post-concussion.
6. Athletes with multiple concussion show performance that is 7.7 worse than single
concussion athletes in a memory recall test.
7. Impact Test was first developed by a group of researchers at the University of Pittsburg.
Test them in the preseason and then after a concussion and compare the results.
ERP measures of cognitive processing done by Jollyker.
1. Event-related potential (ERP) are averaged electrical brain responses to time locked-
2. N2pc = ERP component related to the focusing of visuospatial attention
3. P300 = measure of stimulus classification processing speed.
Jollyker looked at a group of athletes from the Quebec football league. Athletes with no
concussion, Athletes with 1 concussion, and athletes with multiple concussions. Both
concussed groups were 9 months removed from there last concussion. Part a) is the impact
test. Colour curser task put the number in ascending order. The groups that had been
concussed were safe to return to play as there results were the same as the non-concussed
athletes. Part b) Controlled cognitive task. No difference of the amplitude of the N2pc, which