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03 - The Nervous System.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

The Nervous SystemHierarchical OrganizationThink of the Cerebral Cortex as the big boss it tells everyone else what to do and when to do itThink of the thalamus basal ganglia pons and cerebellum as being second in commandThe brainstem is third in commandThe spinal cord is a slave system to all the aboveBriansectionsandsubcorticalstructuressendsandreceivesinfotoandfromthespinalcordLuigi Galvani 1737 1798Animal electricity practiced on frogsInvestigated bioelectric energy and how it allows us to send signalsWorked with spinally prepared frog by applying static electricity to sciatic nerve causing the limb of the frog to moveNeurons and the Neuromuscular SystemAverage adult has 86 billion neuronsA motor unit which consists of an alpha motor unit innervating three muscle fibresAlpha motor unitExtrafusal muscle fibresLower motor neuron diseasealpha motor unit diseaseUpper motor neuron diseasedamage to neurons in cerebral cortexMyleinatedfaster APGlial cells were though to support development and direction of new neuronsClass of neuronsmotor neuron alpha neuronis the enron that exists within the spinal cord axon leaves the CNS spinal cord and goes to synapse with the extrafusal muscle fiber allowing for contraction and movementAxon is heavily mylinated Speed of Nerve ConductionHelmholtz 1850soInterested in speed of nerve conductionoUsed isolated muscle motor nerve of a frogoMeasured time between electrical stimulation and muscle contractionoEstimated the speed of human nerve conductionoMeasured reaction time in response to electrical stimulus to two points For example the foot and thighoNerve Conduction velocity is very fast 3090 msoThat speed is about 110 the speed of sound speed of sound is 1238 kmhDiseases of the Nerve
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