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Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

KINESIOLOGY 1088A LECTURES (TERM 1) LECTURE 1 - Sept. 11, 2009 Objectives of Sport - Consider how psychological factors affect an individual's physical performance in sport - Consider how participation in sport affects psychological development, health and well- being Comprehensive Objective - Behaviour and performance - Behaviour: unique way of responding to ALL stimuli - Performance: goal-directed behaviour for purpose of short term execution of a discrete task Orientations to Sport/Exercise Psychology 1) Behavioural: behaviour of athletes determined by the environment 2) Psychophysiological: study impact of physiological responses to activity on behaviour 3) Cognitive-Behavioural: behaviour determined by one's interpretation of both environment and cognitions (thoughts) Professional Approaches - Clinical counselling: eating disorders - Crisis intervention: "slumpbusting" - Psychological assessment - Performance enhancement - Consultation and program development - Prevention and treatment of injuries Sport Psychology: understanding human behaviour and performance how to study them, what factors to study Kolbs Learning Cycle: Example: CE - Listen to lecture RO - Think about lecture AC Highlight of main points AE - Write exam Methods/Ways of Knowing - scientific method/experiment - systematic observation - single case study - shared public experience - introspection (thoughts/feelings) - intuition (tacit knowledge) Read Chpt. 1 -- Reinforcement, Motivation LECTURE 2 - Sept. 14, 2009 Ways of Knowing in Sport Psychology - Any systematic study of sport psychology should include the following stages: 1) Observation & Description (what is): identify/define essential characteristics 2) Explanation & Analysis (why?): attempt to provide reason for stage 1 3) Prediction (what will be): use the knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences\ 4) Control (how can we?): what can we control to change the behaviour or performance? Scientific Method - assumes all reality can be reduced to individual or constituent parts and that knowledge that isn't based on directly observable data is meaningless - founded on concept of objectivity (lack of bias -- researchers are detached observers and manipulators of nature) - process/method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience - 6 steps: 1) Formulation of specific hypothesis 2) Design of investigation 3) Accumulation of data 4) Classification of data 5) Development of generalization 6) Verification of results - provides way of collecting reliable and valid (internal) data that can then be used to develop generalizable theories and laws of human behaviour - slow and conservative process that often lacks external validity (practicality) Professional Practice Knowledge - holistic (looks at big picture) and experiential (guided trial-and-error learning reflecting the complex interplay of many factors) - often innovative, immediately applicable but less reliable, subject to bias Scientific Method vs. Professional Practice Knowledge - biggest difference: central and active role of researcher in process of knowing (within researcher rather than neutral outside observer) Pre-eminence of Tacit Knowledge - process of inference and intuition that integrates clues into meaning - subsidiary awareness of certain clues ("we know more than we can tell" or "just seems logical") - use unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies - examples: case studies (n of 1), clinical reports, indepth interviews, introspective reports, participant observations, shared experiences (snapshot -- all people have different take on event) Sport Psychology Practitioners - must recognize human experience and behaviour is diverse, complex and thus must be studies using a blend of methods to generate theory and understanding from various ways of knowing - must recognize individuality of participants and uniqueness of setting when dealing with individuals or groups - actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with their own insights and intuition - the science of coaching focuses on use of general principles; art of coaching recognizes when, how and in what situations to individualize these general principles - involves practice/application of knowledge Read Chpt. 6 LECTURE 3 -Sept. 16, 2009 Motivation - Latin movere (to move) - Theoretical construct (not directly observable) - Used to account for: selection (of activity); intensity; persistence of behaviour, learning or performance in any activity - Definition: the direction (approach/avoid) and intensity (high/low) of ones effort - Participant and situation oriented - Interaction of both (ie. Jogging alone vs. with friend) - Some motivational factors can be easily changed while others are more difficult to influence - Guidelines: 1) Both the situation and personal traits motivate participants 2) It is important for a leader to understand what motivates a participant - multiple motives - competing motives - shared and/or unique motives - motives change over time 3) Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation 4) Critical role of the leader in influencing the motivation of the participants (coaching style) 5) Undesirable motives can be changed through Behaviour Modification techniques USE OF TOKEN REWARDS AS MOTIVATORS - Reward: things used to modify or manipulate behaviour (material rewards) - Reinforcement: personal interactions verbal and non-verbal - Token rewards: aka Behaviour Modification, Operant Conditioning, Token Economies, Contingency Management - Contingency: relationship between a behaviour and its consequence - Contingency Management: the regulation of behaviour by use of tokens to influence or alter outcomes - Token rewards include: scholarships, trophies, money, playing/free time, status/recognition, food, freedom, love, stars/decals, privileges - Undesirable behaviours can be eliminated through use of token rewards (ie players swearing in game/practice; coach offers more playing time/let player start in game if they dont swear; also see text p. 134 posting attendance for team in public place improves attendance/punctuality) - Desirable behaviours can be enhanced through use of token rewards (ie text p. 134 improve supportive and positive communication and increase shooting proficiency of a BB team; point system for incidents and success in practice; daily public posting of points earned) - Token rewards have a spill over effect on non-target behaviours (satisfaction/enjoyment, attendance, promptness, interest, attitudes, conformance to rules, social interaction coachathlete, statements of approval less bitching) - Token rewards can be used to improve individual skills and/or task performance not just used to change behaviours - Guidelines: 1) Target only a couple behaviours/skills/tasks and define/explain them in readily observable terms 2) State the contingencies/outcomes clearly 3) Monitor the target behaviours consistently (use assistants to record) 4) Provide meaningful public feedback that focuses on self-improvement, not social comparison (it will occur naturally) (ie in race going for better time, not to win) LECTURE 4 -Sept. 18, 2009 5) Use a very simple reward system and be consistent in the application of the rewards 6) Think and start small and then expand 7) Consider individual differences when applying a program of behaviour modification (expectations of improvement and reward may be tailored to suit individual) - Gradually work to eliminate token system as desirable behaviours are entrenched REINFORCEMENT - Definition: any personal interaction (evaluative comments or reactions) that will increase the occurrence or strength of a behaviour - Positive reinforcement: introduction of something positive that increases or maintains a response -Negative reinforcement: removal of something noxious that increases or maintains a response (not punishment, removing something you dont like; i.e. taking out sprints from practice if team works hard throughout practice) - Punishment: any interaction that decreases the strength of a behaviour - Maximizing the use of punishment if used: - consistency punish everyone the same for the same misdemeanour - punish the behaviour, not the person - allow input into what the punishment is (receivers should have a say) - dont use physical activity as punishment (make fitness enjoyable rather than negative) - impose punishment impersonally - make sure the punishment isnt perceived as reward or attention - dont punish errors during play (talk to them on sidelines) - dont embarrass players in front of teammates - use punishment sparingly but enforce it when you use it - Too often we teach to avoid punishment but dont teach correct alternative behaviours - Social reinforcement: non-tangible, positive or negative, evaluative comments and reactions made by others - Can be presented through either: a) Verbal praise or criticism/sarcasm b) Non-verbal expressions or gestures (positive or critical); b) overrides a) - There are a number of factors which influence the degree to which social reinforcers have an impact on learning and performance they dont always enhance it!
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