Intro to sport psych.
a)Consider how psychological factors effect individuals physical performance in sport exercise
b) consider how participation in sport and exercise effects on individuals psychological development,
health and well being
Obtain an understanding (through description, explanation, understand) of the behaviour and
performance of individuals or groups in sport exercise.
Behaviour- an unique way to respond to all stimuli
Performance- god directed behaviour for the purpose of short term execution of a task
1) Behavioural: behaviours of athletes determined by the environment (environment affects
2) Psychological: study impact of physiological responses to activity on behaviour
3) cognitive behaviourals: behaviourals determined by ones interpretation of both environment and
-clinical counselling: eating disorders
-crisis intervention: slump busting
-psychological assessment: goal planing, stress handling
-consultational program development
-prevention and treatment of injuries
Sport psychologist vs. Sport consultant
(medical problems) (non-medical problems)
What is sport psych?
If we want to understand human behaviour and performance in sport and exercise , how do we go about
studying them and what factors should be included in the study.
How we learn?
-Visual, Auditory and experiential
Kolb's Learn cycle
1) concrete experience(CE)(actual feeling)----->2) (RO) relative observation (watching what
happened)---->3) (AC) abstract conceptualization (make sense of it-thinking)--------> 4) (AE)
active experimentation (trying out elsewhere-doing) ----------> back to 1). Methods of knowing
Scientific method experiments (trial and error)
systematic Observation (watch and learn)
Single case study (Learning from one individual)
Shared public exp (use multiple information)
Introspection (thoughts and feelings)
Intuition (tacit knowledge, just seems logical)
Ways of knowing sport psychology.
1. observation and description (what is?)- identify or define the essential characteristics.
2. Explanation and analysis (why?)- attempt to provide a reason for the feelings in stage one
3. Prediction (what will be?)- use the knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences
4. Control (how can we?)- what can we control to change the behaviour or performance?
Founded on the concept of objectivity (lack of bias-researchers are detached observers and
manipulators of nature)
It is a process of method learning that uses systematic, controlled empirical and critical filtering of
knowledge acquired through experience
Six steps to sci method
1. formulation of specific hypothesis- asking question
2. Design of the investigation- setting up the test, who does it?
3. Accumulation of data- collect data
4. classification of data- grouping
5. Development of generalization
6. Verification of results
These steps provide scientist with a way of collecting reliable valid (internal) data that can then be used
to develop generalization theories and laws of the human behaviour.
However this is slow and conservative process that often lacks external validity (practically)
professional Practice knowledge
Holistic and experimental ( Guided by trail and error learning reflecting the complex interplay of many
factors). Take diff test to figure out the big picture.
It is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptible to bias. Biggest diff is the control and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing (with the research
rather than a neutral outside observer)
pre-cumminance of tacit knowledge- a process of interference and intuition that integrates clues into
Subsidiary awareness of certain clues
``we know that we can tell``
``it just seems logical``
Use unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies
E.g case study, Clinical reports, in depth- interviews, introspective reports, participant observations,
You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with
your own insights and intuition.
form the latin Movere= to move
Atheoretical construct (not a directly observable phenomenon)
Is used to account for the: of behaviour learning of performance in an activity
(selection, persistence, intensity)
Def.: the DIRECTION and INTENSITY of ones EFFORT
interaction of both
some motivational factors can be EASILY changed (goal setting, reinforcement, attribution, self
confidence) while others are more difficult to influence ( presence of others, anxiety, focus of attention)
1. both situation and personal traits motivate participants
2. it is important for a leader to and the participant to understand what motivates and individual
(multiple motives, competing motives, shared and or unique motives, motives change over
3. structure of change the environment to enhance motivation
4. critical role of the leader in influencing the motivation of the participants
5. understandable motives can be change through behaviour modification techniques Token rewards as motivation
Rewards: ``things`` used to modify or manipulate behaviour-material rewards
Reinforcements: personal interactions- verbal and non-verbal (more info later)
Token rewards also known as:
Contingency: relationship b/w a behaviour and a consequence
Contingency management: the regulation of behaviour by use of tokens to influence or alter outcomes
Example of token rewards:
trophies, media spotlight, money, food, freedom, love, stars decals, free time, privileges
Undesirable behaviours can be eliminated through use of token rewards .
EG- text p136 Change behaviours of a swim team
-attendance board (public)
-group competition (intensity)
Desirable behaviours can be enhanced through use of token rewards
EG.- text pg 135- improve supportive & positive communication and increasing shooting proficiency
of a Bbal team.
Recorded all positive things said by the team
-Token rewards have spill over effects on non target rewards
EG Jones 1977- improve skills at a summer Bball camp
earn coloured rings for skill execution that can be exchanged for money
Observed Spill overs
Satisfaction and enjoyment
attendance and promptness
interest and attitude
conformance to rules
social interaction (coach/athletes)
statements of approval- less complaining