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Intro to Sport Psychology Notes Full Semester .docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Intro to Sport Psychology Notes 2 (for FINAL) October 19 2011 Psychological Skills Training (PST) The systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills Psychological skills can be learned but must be practiced and integrated into your routine Psychological factors account for most day to day fluctuations in performance Myths: Psychological skills are innate (they cannot be learned) Only for problem athletes Only effective for the elite athlete Provide for quick fix solutions Not useful hocus pocus Components of PST Program: 1. Education Phase: Learn the nature and basis of the skill and understand how it influences performance 2. Acquisition Phase: Structure training program to develop skills and techniques 3. Practice Phase: Integrate skill development into practice and competitive settings **Helps make the sporting experience fun and helps/meets everyones needs** PST Program: Who?: - Sport psychology consultant - Coach When?: - Pre-season or off season - 3-6 month duration - Ongoing process integrated into practices Needs Assessment: - Evaluate strength and weaknesses - Oral interview and psychology inventory - Performing Profiling What?: - Which skills to include? - Scheduling - Evaluation and follow-up 1 Problems: - Lack of conviction - Lack of time - Lack of knowledge - Lack of follow-up 1. Psychological Skills (INITIAL FOCUS) a) Psychological Skills: - Personal qualities to be attained or developed (ex: target behaviours) b) Performance Skills: - Optimal Arousal (mental and physical) - Attention Control c) Foundation Skills: - Self-Confidence - Motivation - Self-Awareness - Self-Esteem d) Facilitative Skills: - Interpersonal-Awareness - Lifestyle Management Pride = Skill & Process = Method 2. Psychological Methods (SECONDARY FOCUS) - Procedures or techniques used to develop psychological SKILLS (vehicle used to attain skills) - Goal Setting, relaxation, imagery, thought processes (self-talk), attribution. Presence of Others as a Motivator: - Other s = Spectators or audience (observers) = Co-actors (others doing same task-opponent) a) SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORY (Zajonc, 1965) - The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels (more anxious) and causes a response to occur faster or more intensely 1. Increased arousal will increase the likelihood that an individuals dominant response will occur 2. In simple, well learned skills, correct responses and improved performance occurs in the presence of others 2 3. In complexor newly learned skills the dominant responses may be incorrect (old or bad habits) and performance will be impaired in the presence of others. 4. Evaluation Apprehension: Its not just the presence of others that causes arousal. Rather, it is the expectation that those present will be judge or evaluate the quality of the performance that increases arousal ad influences performance effectiveness. October 24 2011 - We learn to associate others with praise/blame or reward/punish type of evaluations - I always do better when youre not looking - An audience can thus have either an arousing or a calming effect and produces resultant variations in performance or behaviour (DRIVE THEORY) Cognitive Approach (Borden, 1980) - Incorporates both of the above theories but takes it one step further - The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience - The performer is a PROACTIVE participant who o Interprets the social situation (through perceptions and exceptions) o Predicts the possible audience reaction o And alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction - Previous experience, age, gender and personality will all influence the individuals subject interpretation of the social situation - The size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size within the situation (numbers according to settinghostile vs. supportive) - Expertise interpret whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of the performance - Supportiveness quality of social support from those present HOME FIELD: Advantages (Varca, 1980): o Functional aggression (home) = more rebounds, blocks, steals o Dysfunctional aggression (away) = more fouls, turnovers Disadvantages (Beaumeister, 1984): - Increased self-consciousness distracts from the automatic execution of skills (playoffs) 3 Implications: There is very little that can be done to eliminate the stressful effects of the presence of others at sporting or exercise events BUT o Eliminate evaluative apprehension and control arousal especially when learning new skill o Knowledge is power educate and inform participants about it! -Inform the athletes about the common physiological reactions to stress so they can recognize them when they occur (butterflies, muscle tension etc) - Inform the athletes how audiences can influence performance -Inform them about the effects that stress and anxiety can have on performance Perfect Practice makes Perfect: a) Over learn skills, techniques, strategy b) Train by simulating audience effects (taped or real crowds at practice) c) Pair high and low anxious athletes (veteran and rookie buddies) Specificity: Arrange practice sessions (both skill and stress reaction situations) so they will approximate game conditions (last second or minutes; special teams) AROUSAL, STRESS AND ANXIETY: Arousal: o A blend of physiological and psychological activation o The intensity of motivation at any particular time o Activation or excitation ranging on a continuum from sleep to hyper-intensity (different activities need different levels of arousal) o Caused by anticipation of an even, a threat or worry Stress: o Fight or Flight (Selye, 1950) o The result of a substantial influence between the physical and psychological demands of a task and ones response capabilities under conditions where failure has important consequences. o 4 STAGES - Environmental demand - Perception of demand (threat) - Stress response (anxiety) - Behavioural consequences (outcome/performance) 4
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