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Kin 1088A Nov. 5.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

SCAT - Assess the degree of the personality trait of anxiety - Assess the degree of stress before, during and after an event (state anxiety) - Asses the overall effect of anxiety during a competition Findings: - No difference in trait or state anxiety levels between: o Participants and non-participants o Most skilled vs. least skilled competitors - State anxiety gradually decreases with age and experience - High trait anxious individuals experience higher feelings of state anxiety prior to, during and after competitions - Trait anxiety levels have no influence Sources of Stress - Individualized 1) Situational a. Importance of the event or segments of it b. Uncertainty of outcome or life events 2) Personal a. Trait anxiety b. Self-esteem c. Social physique evaluation anxiety Other factors influencing one’s perceptions of stress in a competitive situation 1) Individual or team sport 2) Expectations for success 3) Winning vs. losing or trying to do one’s best (outcome vs. performance - refer to goal setting) 4) Attributions to outcome – learned helplessness Fear of Success (Horner, 1985) - Withhold effort or involvement so don’t have to live up to levels attained in previous best performance Effects of Anxiety 1) Somatic – interferes with muscle co-ordination, simultaneous contraction or tension in antagonistic muscle groups 2) Psychological – distraction of attention, think about physical problems and not focus on task at hand, narrowing of the visual field and elimination or relevant cues Anxiety results in a Negative Cycle or Spiral (more anxious, more detriment to performance; poorer performance, more anxiety) - Must break the c
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