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Day 6 & 7.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Intrinsic Interest as a Motivator Definitions: Intrinsic Motivation  Desire to participate in an activity or task for its own sake, enjoyment, excitement, and challenge  Innate need to feel competent and self-determining when dealing with one’s environment (Deci, 1975)  Characterized by an ongoing process of seeking and attempting to conquer challenges that are optimal for one’s ability How to measure intrinsic motivation a) Free choice involv ement in an activity – time spent b) Presence of performance quality – complexity, creativity, flexability, spontaneity c) Self-report questionnaires – interest, enjoyment, satisfaction Extrinsic Motivation  Behaviour engaged in for reasons other than the activity itself – external rewards  Activity becomes a means to an end- a way to an external reward or comply with the demands of others  Produces a feeling of external control resulting in compliance or defiance and us manifested by feelings of pressure, tension, or apprehension ** Intrinsic and Extrinsic motives are on a continuum, they are interactive but not additive (see pg. 140)(can compete or co-operate with one another) How external rewards influence intrinsic interest have been analyzed in two ways: a) Empirical approach – researched based a) Lepper & Green (1975) Nursery Study) 3 groups of kids: expected reward, no reward, unexpected reward 1 week later measured amount of free time spent drawing with pens Results: expected rewards spent less than half the time drawing than the no-reward or unexpected reward groups did Extrinsic rewards actually decreased the intrinsic interest in the activity b) Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)  Evaluates how an individual perceives the impact or external rewards and thus the effect this perception has on his/her intrinsic motivation (enhance it or undermine it)  A subtheory of self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000) – 3 basic psychological needs: effectance, relatedness & autonomy Thus a reward can be perceived to have a controlling or an informational function i) Control- Locus of Causality (self-determination) If external it undermines intrinsic motivation If internal it enhances intrinsic motivation ii) Information – about one’s competence Greater perceived competence enhances intrinsic motivation Diminished perceived competence decreases intrinsic motivation Salience: The importance attributed to a reward will determine how the recipient perceives it Other empirical propositions: c) The gender of the reward recipient influences the interpretation of the reward – this is gradually changing in today’s society Ryan (1980) – University scholarships Football decreases intrinsic motivation (feelings of control) Wrestlers & female athletes- increases intensic motivation. As it provides information on competence since scholarships not given to them as often d) The age of the reward recipiant influences the interpretation of the reward As kids grow older they tend to view rewards more as a bribe (control) e) Extrinsic rewards are associated with work (payment, promotion, success/status)
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